Updated on 2024/03/26

写真a

 
YAMA Hiroshi
 
Organization
Graduate School of Literature and Human Sciences Department of Human Behavioral Sciences Professor
School of Literature and Human Sciences Department of Human Behavioral Sciences
Title
Professor
Affiliation
Institute of Literature and Human Sciences
Profile
My research theme is how human cognition is adaptive in a culture and I focuses on the distinction between rule-based inference of Westerners and dialectic inference of Easterners. Currently, I am also interested in moral reasoning from the view that humans have two kinds of cognitive system: Evolutionarily recent system and old system.
Affiliation campus
Sugimoto Campus

Position

  • Graduate School of Literature and Human Sciences Department of Human Behavioral Sciences 

    Professor  2022.04 - Now

  • School of Literature and Human Sciences Department of Human Behavioral Sciences 

    Professor  2022.04 - Now

Degree

  • Ph.D. (Pedagogy) ( Kyoto University )

Research Areas

  • Humanities & Social Sciences / Experimental psychology

Research Interests

  • infernce

  • rationality

  • dual process theory

  • cross-cultural study

Research subject summary

  • My research theme is how human cognition is adaptive in a culture and I focuses on the distinction between rule-based inference of Westerners and dialectic inference of Easterners. Currently, I am also interested in moral reasoning from the view that humans have two kinds of cognitive system: Evolutionarily recent system and old system.

Research Career

Professional Memberships

  • 日本理論心理学会

    2018.01 - Now

  • 日本社会心理学会

    2007.09 - Now

  • 日本認知心理学会

    2003.02 - Now

  • 関西心理学会

    1986.10 - Now   Domestic

  • 日本心理学会

    1983.09 - Now

Committee Memberships (off-campus)

  • The 2024 International Conference on Thinking, Scientific Committee  

    2022.01 - Now 

  • 日本認知心理学会理事   日本認知心理学会  

    2021.04 - Now 

  • 日本理論心理学会編集委員   日本理論心理学会  

    2018.01 - Now 

  • Editorial Board Member   Journal of Cognitive Psychology  

    2018.01 - Now 

  • 常務理事   日本認知心理学会  

    2015.07 - 2021.03 

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    事務局長

  • 児童心理学の進歩編集委員   日本児童研究所  

    2013.08 - 2020.06 

  • 第31回国際心理学会議プロモーション委員   日本心理学会  

    2012.09 - 2016.07 

  • 教育研究委員会委員   日本心理学会  

    2010.09 - 2018.10 

  • 機関誌等編集委員   日本心理学会  

    2003.11 - 2007.10 

▼display all

Awards

  • 日本認知心理学会優秀発表賞

    山祐嗣

    2018.09   日本認知心理学会  

Job Career (off-campus)

  • Birkbeck College   Honorary research fellow

    2008.04 - 2009.03

  • Sungkyunkwan University

    2005.08 - 2005.09

  • ウォルバーハンプトン大学   日本学術振興会特定国派遣研究員

    2002.09 - 2022.10

Education

  • Kyoto University   Doctor's Course   Accomplished credits for doctoral program

    1985.04 - 1988.03

  • Kyoto University   Master's Course   Graduated/Completed

    1983.04 - 1985.03

  • Kyoto University   Bachelor's Course   Graduated/Completed

    1978.04 - 1982.03

Papers

  • Are Humans Moral Creatures? A Dual-Process Approach for Natural Experiments of History. Reviewed

    Hiroshi Yama

    Human and Artificial Rationalities   210 - 220   2024.03

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    Authorship:Lead author   Publishing type:Research paper (international conference proceedings)   International / domestic magazine:International journal  

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-55245-8_14

  • How do Japanese and Chinese view each other? Understanding the meaning of low-context culture in intercultural communication

    Wu C.

    Global Networks   24 ( 1 )   2024.01( ISSN:14702266

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    International / domestic magazine:International journal  

    DOI: 10.1111/glob.12440

  • Editorial: The role of culture in human thinking and reasoning Reviewed

    Hiroshi Yama, Niall Galbraith, Jean Baratgin, Hirofumi Hashimoto

    Frontiers in Psychology   13   2022.09

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    Authorship:Lead author   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1018392

  • Situational factors shape moral judgements in the trolley dilemma in Eastern, Southern and Western countries in a culturally diverse sample. Reviewed

    Bence Bago, Hiroshi Yama, et al.

    Nature human behaviour   6 ( 6 )   880 - 895   2022.04

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   International / domestic magazine:International journal  

    The study of moral judgements often centres on moral dilemmas in which options consistent with deontological perspectives (that is, emphasizing rules, individual rights and duties) are in conflict with options consistent with utilitarian judgements (that is, following the greater good based on consequences). Greene et al. (2009) showed that psychological and situational factors (for example, the intent of the agent or the presence of physical contact between the agent and the victim) can play an important role in moral dilemma judgements (for example, the trolley problem). Our knowledge is limited concerning both the universality of these effects outside the United States and the impact of culture on the situational and psychological factors affecting moral judgements. Thus, we empirically tested the universality of the effects of intent and personal force on moral dilemma judgements by replicating the experiments of Greene et al. in 45 countries from all inhabited continents. We found that personal force and its interaction with intention exert influence on moral judgements in the US and Western cultural clusters, replicating and expanding the original findings. Moreover, the personal force effect was present in all cultural clusters, suggesting it is culturally universal. The evidence for the cultural universality of the interaction effect was inconclusive in the Eastern and Southern cultural clusters (depending on exclusion criteria). We found no strong association between collectivism/individualism and moral dilemma judgements.

    DOI: 10.1038/s41562-022-01319-5

    PubMed

  • Hindsight bias in judgments of the predictability of flash floods: An experimental study for testimony at a court trial and legal decision making Reviewed

    Hiroshi Yama, Masashi Akita, Takuya Kawasaki

    APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY   35 ( 3 )   711 - 719   2021.02( ISSN:0888-4080

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    As part of the first author's expert testimony at a court trial, we investigated hindsight bias in perceptions of the predictability of a real flash flood. Participants were presented with pictures taken before the flash flood and asked to rate the muddiness of the water and judge the likelihood of flooding in Experiment 1. Participants who were informed that a flash flood had occurred perceived the river as muddier and judged a flood to be more likely than control participants. Their judgment was biased by hindsight. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the causality from muddiness to flooding was instructed, participants judged the river as muddier. These results were interpreted as top-down perception being implicitly adjusted by outcome information and causality information. The judges decided that the defendants had no responsibility to predict the flash flood, taking the hindsight bias into consideration.

    DOI: 10.1002/acp.3797

  • The Current Situation and Issues Regarding Sex Offender Recidivism Prevention in Japan: Focusing on the Possibility of Cross-disciplinary Joint Research

    UEMIYA Ai, NAKA Makiko, SUZUKI Ayumi, YOKOMITSU Kengo, YAMA Hiroshi, YAMAMOTO Shota, OCHI Keita

    Japanese Journal of Law and Psychology   20 ( 1 )   121 - 127   2020( ISSN:13468669

  • Morality and Contemporary Civilization Reviewed

    Hiroshi Yama

    Adapting Human Thinking and Moral Reasoning in Contemporary Society   92 - 114   2020( ISBN:9781799818113

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    International / domestic magazine:International journal  

    This chapter investigates if System 2 (analytic system) can revise or suppress the negative outputs of System 1 (intuitive system) by natural experiment in history. Two periods are picked up in this chapter: the 17th century when there was a decline in war, torture, cruel punishment, and religious persecution, and the time after World War II when there has been a decline in war, genocide, and violence with growing awareness of human rights. In short, the outputs associated with strong emotion are less likely to be revised, and an effective way for revision is to use a story to trigger the theory of mind in System 1. This is also discussed in the frame of distinction between deontic moral judgment and utilitarian moral judgment. Finally, it is proposed that a good story should be elaborated by System 2 and be prevailed so that it arises emotions (sympathy) of System 1 and drives people for the better-being future.

    DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1811-3.ch004

  • Laugh and Laughter as Adaptation in Human Being Reviewed

    Hiroshi Yama

    Adapting Human Thinking and Moral Reasoning in Contemporary Society   156 - 175   2020( ISBN:9781799818113

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    International / domestic magazine:International journal  

    In the process of human evolution, the biggest adaptive problems have been how to maintain a group and how to rise in rank in a group hierarchy. If an adaptive problem is solved, the probability the solver will survive and success in reproduction rises. Laugh and laughter is discussed in the frame that it has been used to solve the adaptive problem in this chapter. The trigger of laughter is the cognition of a discrepancy. The discrepancy is the difference between what is expected and the actual state. A discrepancy cannot be serious to cause laugh and laughter. If it is implicitly expected to be resolved, then it is likely to arise a laughter with positive feeling. When laughter is shared by some people, it functions to link them with friendly relationship. On the other hand, the laughter becomes derisive (ridicule) when the discrepancy is between a social norm and an actual behavior. The ridicule functions to one's supremacy over the target individual. This function has been adaptive in the society of dominance hierarchy.

    DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1811-3.ch007

  • Explanations for cultural differences in thinking: Easterners' dialectical thinking and Westerners' linear thinking Reviewed

    Yama Hiroshi, Zakaria Norhayati

    JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY   31 ( 4 )   487 - 506   2019.05( ISSN:2044-5911

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    DOI: 10.1080/20445911.2019.1626862

  • Perceptual hindsight bias after knowing flash floods: Causal relationship information between muddiness and flush flood. Reviewed

    Yama Hiroshi

    The Japanese Society for Cognitive Psychology, Proceedings of the Japanese Society for Cognitive Psychology   2019 ( 0 )   2019

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Kind of work:Single Work  

    <p>Yama et al. (2017) reported hindsight bias in perceptions of the muddiness and the predictability of a flash flood in a river, as part of the author's expert testimony in a court trial. The defendants had taken children to the river to play when a flash flood occurred that led to the drowning of one child. The core question was if the defendants could have predicted the flood using a visible cue: the muddiness of the river. Participants who knew the outcome of flash flood estimated the river muddier. The instruction on causality between the muddiness and the flush flood was manipulated in this current study. Participants were grouped into two conditions: the control condition and the outcome condition. The hindsight bias was confirmed and participants judged the river as muddier when the causality was instructed. These data give practical indications for legal judgments in a court.</p>

    DOI: 10.14875/cogpsy.2019.0_16

    CiNii Article

  • Understanding Conditionals in the East: A Replication Study of With Easterners. Reviewed

    Nakamura H, Shao J, Baratgin J, Over DE, Takahashi T, Yama H

    Frontiers in psychology   9   505   2018.04( ISSN:1664-1078

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00505

    PubMed

  • Robust Improvements on Reasoning Performance Following Discussion in Japan Reviewed

    Mariko Boku, Hiroshi Yama, Hugo Mercier

    Japanese Psychological Research   60 ( 1 )   47 - 53   2018.01( ISSN:0021-5368

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    © 2017 Japanese Psychological Association. Group discussion significantly improves performance on intellective problems. However, most experiments have been conducted in Western cultures. Cross-cultural psychology suggests that members of Eastern cultures might be less likely to benefit from group discussion. One experiment in Japan suggested that this was not the case, but this experiment suffered from some limitations. To address these limitations, Japanese participants were asked to solve an intellective task four times: individually (pre-test), in small discussion groups (test), individually again (transfer task, post-test), and individually after a delay (delayed post-test). The results revealed a robust improvement during group discussion. Groups in which at least one member had found the correct answer individually agreed on it during the discussion. Moreover, and in contrast with results obtained in Western cultures, most groups with no such member also found the correct answer. The gains obtained during discussion were maintained in the transfer tasks. This result provides further evidence that the improvement of reasoning performance in group discussion is a universal phenomenon, and provides support for the practice of collaborative learning in Japan.

    DOI: 10.1111/jpr.12180

  • Counterfactuals, indicative conditionals, and negation under uncertainty: Are there cross-cultural differences? Reviewed

    Niki Pfeifer,Hiroshi Yama

    cognitivesciencesociety.org, Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, CogSci 2017, London, UK, 16-29 July 2017   2017

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    Other URL: http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/cogsci/cogsci2017.html#conf/cogsci/PfeiferY17

  • Hindsight bias on turbidity judgment in water and probability judgement of flush flood::An experiment for the testimony at a trial. Reviewed

    Yama Hiroshi, Akita Masashi, Kawasaki Takuya

    The Japanese Society for Cognitive Psychology, Proceedings of the Japanese Society for Cognitive Psychology   2017 ( 0 )   2017

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    Three kinder garden teachers took some kids to a river side, a flash flood occurred, and a kid died. The focus was that if the accused could have predicted the flash flood. This experiment was conducted to test if people are susceptible to hindsight bias in this trial case. University students were presented four pictures actually taken before the flash flood and were asked to rate how muddy the river looks on 7-point scale and to infer the probability of flash flood from the muddiness. The participants in the outcome group were instructed that a flash flood was actually occurred and there were victims. Those in the outcome condition judged that the river was muddier and the probability of flood was higher than those in the control condition. We concluded that it is plausible that people are susceptible to hindsight bias on perceptual and probability judgment.

    DOI: 10.14875/cogpsy.2017.0_29

    CiNii Article

  • Counterfactuals, indicative conditionals, and negation under uncertainty: Are there cross-cultural differences? Reviewed

    Niki Pfeifer,Hiroshi Yama

    CoRR   abs/1703.03255   2017

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    Other URL: http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/corr/corr1703.html#journals/corr/PfeiferY17

  • If easterners are illogical when reasoning, then what does this mean? Reviewed

    Hiroshi Yama

    The Thinking Mind: A Festschrift for Ken Manktelow   166 - 177   2016.10

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Kind of work:Single Work  

    DOI: 10.4324/9781315676074

  • Cultural differences in reasoning between Westerners and Easterners Reviewed

    Yama Hiroshi

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY   51   169 - 170   2016.07( ISSN:0020-7594

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Kind of work:Single Work  

  • Research on reasoning and its expansion Reviewed

    Yama Hiroshi

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY   51   169 - 169   2016.07( ISSN:0020-7594

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Kind of work:Single Work  

  • A National Survey of Psychology Education Programs and Their Content in Japan Reviewed

    Takashi Kusumi, Hiroshi Yama, Kensuke Okada, Satoru Kikuchi, Takahiro Hoshino

    Japanese Psychological Research   58   4 - 18   2016.06( ISSN:0021-5368

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    © Japanese Psychological Association 2016. This study reports the results of a national survey of psychology programs in Japan, conducted by the Committee on the Education and Research of the Japanese Psychological Association, based on 443 responses from program heads of 378 colleges, universities, and graduate schools. We analyzed the data by institution and type of degree program. The results indicated that: (a) undergraduate-level psychological education in Japan is mainly provided by private universities (which account for 71% of all psychology graduates at this level), while Master's (60%) and Ph.D. (83%) programs are mainly provided by national and public universities; (b) the largest groups of faculty members by specialization are in clinical psychology and in developmental and educational psychology; (c) the dominant forms of teaching are lectures and seminars; and (d) most psychology major programs in Japan aim to improve students' academic and generic skills. Finally, we suggest how psychology programs in Japan can reform curriculum and better improve students' academic skills on the basis of their generic skills.

    DOI: 10.1111/jpr.12111

    J-GLOBAL

  • 日本での心理学教育プログラムおよび教育内容に関する全国調査(A National Survey of Psychology Education Programs and Their Content in Japan)

    Kusumi Takashi, Yama Hiroshi, Okada Kensuke, Kikuchi Satoru, Hoshino Takahiro

    Japanese Psychological Research   58 ( Suppl.1 )   4 - 18   2016.06( ISSN:0021-5368

  • The benefits of argumentation are cross-culturally robust: The case of Japan Reviewed

    H. Mercier, M. Deguchi, J. B. Van der Henst, H. Yama

    Thinking and Reasoning   22 ( 1 )   1 - 15   2016.01( ISSN:1354-6783

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Thanks to the exchange of arguments, groups outperform individuals on some tasks, such as solving logical problems. However, these results stem from experiments conducted among Westerners and they could be due to cultural particularities such as tolerance of contradiction and approval of public debate. Other cultures, collectivistic cultures in particular, are said to frown on argumentation. Moreover, some influential intellectual movements, such as Confucianism, disapprove of argumentation. In two experiments, the hypothesis that Easterners might not share the benefits of argumentation was tested. In Experiment 1, Japanese participants had to solve a standard logical problem individually and then in groups. They performed significantly better in groups. In Experiment 2, Japanese participants had to estimate the weight of various animals. They did so individually, then after learning of another participant's estimates, then after discussing these estimates with the other participant, and then individually again. While the Japanese participants also benefitted from the discussion, these benefits were only visible when participants provided a final individual estimate. This delay is interpreted as reflecting the pressure to preserve social harmony that would have constrained Japanese participants to yield to their partner even when knowing that this did not improve the accuracy of their answer.

    DOI: 10.1080/13546783.2014.1002534

    J-GLOBAL

  • A perspective of cross-cultural psychological studies for global business Reviewed

    Hiroshi Yama

    Handbook of Research on Impacts of International Business and Political Affairs on the Global Economy   185 - 206   2016.01

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Kind of work:Single Work  

    © 2016 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. Some may still have a stereotypical image that Japanese employees work like a robot, and achieved the industrial development even though they are not logical thinkers. This chapter is against this based on the latest cross-cultural studies. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Even if Japanese appears to be illogical in the sense that they are less likely to do rule-based thinking, this does not means that they are less intelligent. (2) Easterners are more likely to do dialectical thinking. (3) Easterners' naïve dialecticism is strongly associated with cultural tradition, and it is plausible that it has been developed in a highcontext culture. (4) Japanese people may have a collectivist culture, and it is not an undeveloped culture comparing with an individualist culture as shown in the case of 'nemawashi'. Finally, it is proposed that the distinction between Westerners' low-context culture and Easterners' high-context culture provide important implications for globalizing business and that the notions of global mindset and 'glocal' are important for international business.

    DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9806-2.ch010

    J-GLOBAL

  • A perspective of cross-cultural psychological studies for global business Reviewed

    Hiroshi Yama

    International Business: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications   1734 - 1755   2016.01

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Kind of work:Single Work  

    © 2016 by IGI Global. Some may still have a stereotypical image that Japanese employees work like a robot, and achieved the industrial development even though they are not logical thinkers. This chapter is against this based on the latest cross-cultural studies. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Even if Japanese appears to be illogical in the sense that they are less likely to do rule-based thinking, this does not means that they are less intelligent. (2) Easterners are more likely to do dialectical thinking. (3) Easterners’ naïve dialecticism is strongly associated with cultural tradition, and it is plausible that it has been developed in a highcontext culture. (4) Japanese people may have a collectivist culture, and it is not an undeveloped culture comparing with an individualist culture as shown in the case of ‘nemawashi’. Finally, it is proposed that the distinction between Westerners’ low-context culture and Easterners’ high-context culture provide important implications for globalizing business and that the notions of global mindset and ‘glocal’ are important for international business.

    DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9814-7.ch080

  • Takashi Kusumi,and Yasushi Michita (Eds.)(2015).Critical Thinking:Foundation of 21st Century Literacy.Tokyo:Shinyousha Reviewed

    Yama Hiroshi

    Japanese Cognitive Science Society, Cognitive Studies   23 ( 3 )   297 - 298   2016( ISSN:1341-7924

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Kind of work:Single Work  

    DOI: 10.11225/jcss.23.297

    CiNii Article

  • Dialectical thinking: A cross-cultural study of Japanese, Chinese, and British students Reviewed

    Bo Zhang, Niall Galbraith, Hiroshi Yama, Lei Wang, Ken I. Manktelow

    Journal of Cognitive Psychology   27 ( 6 )   771 - 779   2015.08( ISSN:2044-5911

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Peng and Nisbett found that Chinese people are more apt to engage in dialectical thinking (DT) than Americans. We gave the Dialectical Self Scale questionnaire and 10 pairs of opposing opinions to high school and university students of Japanese, Chinese, and British nationality. We asked them to fill in the questionnaire, to rate how strongly they agreed with each opinion, and to rate how wise it is to think dialectically. The scores on the questionnaire were higher among Easterners than among Westerners and higher among university students than among high school students. But the results of opinion agreement indicated that the dialectical tendency was stronger among the Chinese and British than among the Japanese. Furthermore, however, Japanese participants judged DT as wiser than Chinese and British did, and Chinese university students believed it was wiser than Chinese high school students did. We propose that this effect is attributed to Marxist education in China.

    DOI: 10.1080/20445911.2015.1025792

    J-GLOBAL

  • Experts and laymen grossly underestimate the benefits of argumentation for reasoning Reviewed

    Hugo Mercier, Emmanuel Trouche, Hiroshi Yama, Christophe Heintz, Vittorio Girotto

    Thinking and Reasoning   21 ( 3 )   341 - 355   2015.07( ISSN:1354-6783

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Many fields of study have shown that group discussion generally improves reasoning performance for a wide range of tasks. This article shows that most of the population, including specialists, does not expect group discussion to be as beneficial as it is. Six studies asked participants to solve a standard reasoning problem—the Wason selection task—and to estimate the performance of individuals working alone and in groups. We tested samples of U.S., Indian, and Japanese participants, European managers, and psychologists of reasoning. Every sample underestimated the improvement yielded by group discussion. They did so even after they had been explained the correct answer, or after they had had to solve the problem in groups. These mistaken intuitions could prevent individuals from making the best of institutions that rely on group discussion, from collaborative learning and work teams to deliberative assemblies.

    DOI: 10.1080/13546783.2014.981582

    J-GLOBAL

  • Two methods to measure the level of trust of Americans and Japanese: A cross-cultural study Reviewed

    Hiromi Yamaguchi, Gary L. Brase, Hiroshi Yama

    SAGE Open   4 ( 4 )   2014.01( ISSN:2158-2440

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    © The Author(s) 2014. Interpersonal trust of Japanese and Americans was investigated using two methods: a General Trust Questionnaire and a scenario judgments task, in which participants were asked to rate how strongly they trust a target person in a series of vignettes. Participants were grouped into two conditions, with the target person being either an in-group member or an outgroup member. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether Americans have a higher level of trust than Japanese do, to test the in-group hypothesis which predicts that the difference in trust between the two conditions is greater for Japanese than for Americans and the dialectical thought hypothesis which predicts that the correlation between the General Trust Questionnaire score and the scenario judgments task score would only occur in the Americans’ data. The study, which was conducted with American (n = 105) and Japanese (n = 102) participants, found no differences in the trust level between Americans and Japanese in both methods. The results did not support the in-group hypothesis, but did support the dialectical thought hypothesis, indicating that Japanese are more dialectical in judging how they trust others.

    DOI: 10.1177/2158244014556991

    J-GLOBAL

  • The probability of conditional and the conditional bet:A cross-cultural study. Reviewed

    Yama Hiroshi

    The Japanese Society for Cognitive Psychology, Proceedings of the Japanese Society for Cognitive Psychology   2014 ( 0 )   2014

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    According to the propositional logic, the probability of conditional <i>if p then q</i> equals to P(&not;p&or;q). However, many researchers show that people judge that it equals conditional probability (P(q|p)). The data support the the suppositional theory which propose that not-p cases are regarded as void based on De Finetti&rsquo;s truth table. We adopted the set-choice paradigm whereby participants are given a pair of urns which includes some chips and asked to choose one which gives higher probability of a conditional &lsquo;if p then q&rsquo;(the probability of conditional). We also set the conditional bet task in the same way. We gathered data from American and Japanese samples via internet, and found that both Japanese and American judged the probability based on the conditional probability, but some judged it based on the principle of conjunction (P(p&q)).

    DOI: 10.14875/cogpsy.2014.0_5

    CiNii Article

  • Ego-involvement and utility in causal inference. Reviewed

    Yoshiko Arai,Hiroshi Yama

    cognitivesciencesociety.org, Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, CogSci 2014, Quebec City, Canada, July 23-26, 2014   2014

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    Other URL: http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/cogsci/cogsci2014.html#conf/cogsci/AraiY14

  • Culture, ambiguity aversion and choice in probability judgments.

    Adachi, K., Van der Henst, J-B., Mercier, H., Karasawa, M., and Kawasaki, Y.

    International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving   23   63 - 78   2013.11

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

  • A Study of implicit attitudes toward high-fat foods among female undergraduate students Reviewed

    Sachiko Yamanaka, Hiroshi Yama, Masao Yogo

    日本社会心理学会, Research in Social Psychology   27 ( 2 )   101 - 108   2012.10( ISSN:09161503

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    This study investigated implicit attitudes toward high-fat foods among female undergraduate students. The existence of conflict between implicit negative attitudes and approach attitudes toward high-fat foods was predicted. Implicit attitudes were measured using the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998). This test has two attribute categories: positive-negative and approach-avoidance. In Experiment 1, food stimuli were presented using words. The results showed an implicit negative attitude toward high-fat foods, but no approach attitude. In Experiment 2, pictures were used as food stimuli. Here, the results showed both an implicit negative attitude and an implicit approach attitude toward high-fat food. However, no difference was seen in implicit attitude toward high-fat foods between the group with high intention of intake restraint and the group with low intention. These results partly supported the prediction for this study. The relationships of implicit negative attitudes and implicit approach attitudes toward high-fat foods, and eating behavior, were discussed.

    DOI: 10.14966/jssp.KJ00007905890

    CiNii Article

  • Is the use of averaging in advice taking modulated by culture? Reviewed

    Hugo Mercier, Hiroshi Yama, Yayoi Kawasaki, Kuniko Adachi, Jean Baptiste Van Der Henst

    Journal of Cognition and Culture   12   1 - 16   2012.05( ISSN:15677095

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    Abstract Many recent experiments have explored the way people take advice into account. It has been observed that in so doing participants often rely on one of the two following strategies: averaging between the different opinions or choosing one of the opinions, as opposed to using more complex weighting strategies. While several factors that affect strategy choice have been investigated, no attention has been paid to potential cultural variations. Among the many relevant cross-cultural differences, results have show that Easterners tend to favor compromise more than Westerners, a difference that could translate into a greater preference for averaging in Eastern population. In Experiment 1, we confronted Japanese and French participants to two pieces of advice and asked them to form an aggregate answer. In Experiment 2, participants had to aggregate their own opinion and a piece of advice. In neither of the experiments were the Japanese more likely to use averaging than the French. Explanations for this robust absence of difference are suggested. The only difference that emerged was that the Japanese were more likely to choose the advice and less likely to choose their own answer than the French. Different interpretations of this result are discussed, including the possibility that it is an artefact of a theoretically irrelevant difference between the populations under study. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2012.

    DOI: 10.1163/156853712X633893

  • 青年の認知

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    高橋恵子・安藤寿康・湯川良三・秋山弘子(編) 発達科学入門[3]青年期~後期高齢期 東京大学出版会   3 - 16   2012.04( ISBN:4130151436

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  • Is the use of averaging in advice taking modulated by culture?

    Mercier, H. Kawasaki, Y., Adachi, K., and Van der Henst, J-B.

    Journal of Cognition and Culture   12   1 - 16   2012.01( ISSN:1567-7095

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  • 女子大学生における高脂肪食品に対する潜在的態度の検討

    山中祥子・余語真夫

    社会心理学研究   27   101 - 108   2012.01( ISSN:0916-1503

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  • The effect of duration and self-choice effect on true and false memory. Reviewed

    Kawasaki Yayoi, Itsukushima Yukio, Yama Hiroshi

    The Japanese Society for Cognitive Psychology, Proceedings of the Japanese Society for Cognitive Psychology   2012 ( 0 )   2012

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    The self-choice effect is the superior memory performance observed when participants are allowed to choose the items at the study phase. Kawasaki, Itsukushima and Yama (2011, ICOM5) revealed that as for list words self-choice effect was observed, but as for critical lures no self-choice effect was observed with DRM paradigm. In this experiment, we investigated the effect of duration and self-choice effect on true memory and false memory. Participants studied DRM lists in forced-choice and self-choice conditions and took two recall tests immediately and 1-week later. As a main result, recall of list words decreased, but that of critical lures increased with the duration. Hence fuzzy trace theory was supported.

    DOI: 10.14875/cogpsy.2012.0_25

    CiNii Article

  • Inference and culture: The distinction between low context culture and high context culture as a possible explanation for cultural differences in cognition. Reviewed

    Hiroshi Yama,Norhayati Zakaria

    cognitivesciencesociety.org, Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, CogSci 2012, Sapporo, Japan, August 1-4, 2012   2012

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    Other URL: http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/cogsci/cogsci2012.html#conf/cogsci/YamaZ12

  • Postal Addresses as an Assay of Cultural Cognition. Reviewed

    Hiroko Nakamura,Hiroshi Yama,Gary L. Brase,Nasriah Zakaria,Yoshiko Arai,Norhayati Zakaria,Shafiz Affendi Mohd. Yusof,Jun Kawaguchi

    cognitivesciencesociety.org, Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, CogSci 2012, Sapporo, Japan, August 1-4, 2012   2012

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    Other URL: http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/cogsci/cogsci2012.html#conf/cogsci/NakamuraYBZAZYK12

  • 批判的思考と適応-批判的思考がとくに必要な状況

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    楠見孝・子安増生・道田泰司(編著) 批判的思考力を育む--学士力と社会人基礎力の基盤形成   66 - 86   2011.09( ISBN:464117380X

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  • 実際の記憶と虚記憶における自己選択効果2 Reviewed

    川﨑 弥生, 厳島 行雄, 山 祐嗣

    公益社団法人 日本心理学会 日本心理学会大会発表論文集   75 ( 0 )   1PM089 - 1PM089   2011

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    DOI: 10.4992/pacjpa.75.0_1PM089

    CiNii Article

  • Certainty and ambiguity in probability judgements Reviewed

    ADACHI Kuniko, YAMA Hiroshi

    The Japanese Psychological Association, The Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the Japanese Psychological Association   75 ( 0 )   1PM129 - 1PM129   2011

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    DOI: 10.4992/pacjpa.75.0_1PM129

    CiNii Article

  • Trust and in-group bias:―Cultural priming and cross-cultural study― Reviewed

    YAMA Hiroshi, YAMAGUCHI Hiromi

    The Japanese Psychological Association, The Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the Japanese Psychological Association   75 ( 0 )   3PM058 - 3PM058   2011

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    DOI: 10.4992/pacjpa.75.0_3PM058

    CiNii Article

  • A cross-cultural study of hindsight bias and conditional probabilistic reasoning. International coauthorship

    Manktelow, K. I., Mercier, H., Van der Henst, J-B., Do, K. S., Kawasaki, Y., and Adachi, K.

    Thinking and Reasoning   16   346 - 371   2010.12( ISSN:1354-6783

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    Authorship:Lead author   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   International / domestic magazine:International journal  

    DOI: doi.org/10.1080/13546783.2010.526786

  • 推論能力の発達

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    市川伸一(編) 現代の認知心理学5 学習と発達 北大路書房   80 - 103   2010.08( ISBN:4762827207

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  • A cross-cultural study of hindsight bias and conditional probabilistic reasoning Reviewed

    Hiroshi Yama, Ken I. Manktelow, Hugo Mercier, Jean Baptiste van der Henst, Kyung Soo Do, Yayoi Kawasaki, Kuniko Adachi

    Thinking and Reasoning   16 ( 4 )   346 - 371   2010( ISSN:1354-6783

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    Hindsight bias is a mistaken belief that one could have predicted a given outcome once the outcome is known. Choi and Nisbett (2000) reported that Koreans showed stronger hindsight bias than Americans, and explained the results using the distinction between analytic cognition (Westerners) and holistic cognition (Easterners). The purpose of the present study was to see whether hindsight bias is stronger among Easterners than among Westerners using a probability judgement task, and to test an "explicit-implicit" hypothesis and a "rule-dialectics" hypothesis. We predicted that the implicit process is more active among Easterners to generate hindsight bias, and that Easterners are more dialectical thinkers, whereas Westerners are more rulebased thinkers. French, British, Japanese, and Korean participants were asked to make probabilistic judgements in a Good Samaritan scenario (Experiment 1) and in a scenario including conditional probabilistic judgement (Experiment 2). In both Experiments, we presume that the implicit revision of causal models is made just by being given unexpected outcome information, and that explicit revision is made by being asked to point out possible factors for an unexpected outcome. In the results Easterners showed greater hindsight bias generally and it was greater in the Good Samaritan scenario. We conclude that the reason why hindsight bias was lower among Westerners is primarily that they tried to follow a rule to suppress the bias. © 2010 Psychology Press.

    DOI: 10.1080/13546783.2010.526786

  • A dual process model for cultural differences in thought Reviewed

    Hiroshi Yama, Miwa Nishioka, Tomoko Horishita, Yayoi Kawasaki, Junichi Taniguchi

    Mind and Society   6   143 - 172   2007.11( ISSN:15937879

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    Nisbett et al. (Psychol Rev 108:291-310, 2001) claim that East Asians are likely to use holistic thought to solve problems, whereas Westerners use analytic thought more, and discuss the differences in the frame of the individualism/collectivism distinction. The holistic versus analytic distinction has been the greatest point of interest of dual process theories, which imply that human thinking has two sub processes. We apply a revised dual process model that proposes meme-acquired goals in both systems to explain cultural differences in thought. According to this, gene-installed goals are universal across cultures, whereas meme-acquired goals depend upon culture. To introduce a dual process model means that we discuss adaptation both in terms of culture and natural selection. Hence, we propose an interactive view that supports an adaptive relation between mind and culture. © 2007 Fondazione Rosselli.

    DOI: 10.1007/s11299-007-0028-4

  • A dual process model for cultural differences in thought

    Nishioka, M., Horishita, T., Kawasaki, Y., and Taniguchi, J.

    Mind and Society   6   143 - 172   2007.11( ISSN:1593-7879

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  • Dealing with contradiction in a communicative context: A cross-cultural study Reviewed

    Jean Baptiste Van Der Henst, Hugo Mercier, Hiroshi Yama, Yayoi Kawasaki, Kuniko Adachi

    Intercultural Pragmatics   3   487 - 502   2006.12( ISSN:1612295X

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    In this paper, we investigate the impact of two factors on the way people address conflicting information. One relates to culture and the other to the communicative context in which contradiction occurs. We compared two theoretical approaches, one that focuses on the former factor-the culturalist approach-and one that focuses on the latter factor-the evolutionary approach. According to the culturalist approach, the way we deal with contradiction can be markedly affected by culture, so that people from cultural environments with different social practices are more or less inclined to accept contradictions. In particular, this approach predicts that Easterners are more likely to search for a compromise between two conflicting viewpoints than Westerners, who tend to follow a logical principle of noncontradiction. In contrast, the evolutionary approach considers that when contradiction occurs in a communicative context, universal mechanisms designed to deal with the problem of managing deceptive information go into effect and lead to the tendency of giving more weight to one's own belief than to the other's conflicting view. We tested these two approaches with Japanese and French participants. Our data supports the evolutionary approach, since both groups showed the same bias of favoring one's own position when it was challenged by another's. © Walter de Gruyter.

    DOI: 10.1515/IP.2006.029

  • Dealing with contradiction in a communicative context: A cross-cultural study International coauthorship

    Van der Henst, J-B, Mercier, H., Kawasaki, Y., and Adachi, K.

    Intercultural Pragmatics   3   487 - 502   2006.12

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  • The choosing versus rejecting of a person : An explanation of self-critical bias Reviewed

    TANIGUCHI Junichi, YAMA Hiroshi, KAWASAKI Yayoi, HORISHITA Tomoko, NISHIOKA Miwa

    日本社会心理学会, Japanese Journal of Social Psychology ( Before 1996, Research in Social Psychology )   21 ( 3 )   226 - 232   2006.02( ISSN:09161503

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    Shafir (1993) found that people select an alternative which is positive on some dimensions and negative on others more often than one with average dimensions. We applied his methodology to the choice of a person. It is argued that Japanese people prefer a person with an average disposition. But is it that they really prefer this or that they believe that others do? We presented a scenario where two persons wanted to join a party with your group. One was positive on some dimensions and negative on others, whereas the other had an average disposition. One hundred and seven female students were asked to choose one of the two persons, and 113 female students were asked to reject one of the two. They were also asked to infer which person the other members of their group would choose or reject. The results were that our participants chose and rejected the person with positive and negative dimensions in the self-decision condition, whereas they inferred that other members would choose the average person. These imply that self-critical bias may reflect an adaptive strategy as to the selection of persons.

    DOI: 10.14966/jssp.KJ00004065962

    CiNii Article

  • The choosing versus rejecting of a person : An explanation of self-critical bias

    TANIGUCHI Junichi, YAMA Hiroshi, KAWASAKI Yayoi, HORISHITA Tomoko, NISHIOKA Miwa

    Japanese Journal of Social Psychology ( Before 1996, Research in Social Psychology )   21 ( 3 )   226 - 232   2006.02( ISSN:0916-1503

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    Shafir (1993) found that people select an alternative which is positive on some dimensions and negative on others more often than one with average dimensions. We applied his methodology to the choice of a person. It is argued that Japanese people prefer a person with an average disposition. But is it that they really prefer this or that they believe that others do? We presented a scenario where two persons wanted to join a party with your group. One was positive on some dimensions and negative on others, whereas the other had an average disposition. One hundred and seven female students were asked to choose one of the two persons, and 113 female students were asked to reject one of the two. They were also asked to infer which person the other members of their group would choose or reject. The results were that our participants chose and rejected the person with positive and negative dimensions in the self-decision condition, whereas they inferred that other members would choose the average person. These imply that self-critical bias may reflect an adaptive strategy as to the selection of persons.

    DOI: 10.14966/jssp.KJ00004065962

    CiNii Article

  • 人物選択における選好と拒否-自己批判バイアスの一説明

    谷口淳一・川﨑弥生・堀下智子・西岡美和

    社会心理学研究   21   226 - 232   2006.02( ISSN:0916-1503

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  • The difference between implicit and explicit associative processes at study to create false memory in the DRM paradigm. Reviewed

    Kawasaki, Y.

    Memory   14   68 - 78   2006.01

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  • The difference between implicit and explicit associative processes at study in creating false memory in the DRM paradigm. Reviewed

    Kawasaki Y, Yama H

    Memory (Hove, England)   14 ( 1 )   68 - 78   2006.01( ISSN:1464-0686|0965-8211

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    DOI: 10.1080/09658210444000520

    PubMed

    J-GLOBAL

  • Cross-linguistic false recognition: How do Japanese-dominant bilinguals process two languages: Japanese and English?

    Kawasaki-Miyaji, Y. and Inoue, T.

    Psychologia   46   255 - 267   2003.12( ISSN:0033-2852

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  • Optimal data selection in a dual process model.

    The Korean Journal of Thinking and Problem Solving   13   97 - 111   2003.10( ISSN:1598-723X

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  • 直説法的Wason選択課題におけるバイアスをどのように説明できるか?

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    認知科学   9   473 - 486   2002.12( ISSN:1341-7924

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  • Context, goal, utility, and relevance: A reply to Evans (2002) considering Oaksford (2002).

    Thinking and Reasoning   8   225 - 230   2002.09( ISSN:1354-6783

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    DOI: doi.org/10.1080/13546780244000051

  • 高い確率で虚記憶を生成するDRMパラダイムのための日本語リストの作成

    宮地弥生

    基礎心理学研究   21   21 - 26   2002.06( ISSN:0287-7651

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  • 演繹的推論

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    森敏昭(編) 認知心理学を語る③おもしろ思考のラボラトリー 北大路書房   77 - 98   2001.09( ISBN:476282223X

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  • Matching versus optimal data selection in the Wason selection task. Reviewed

    Thinking and Reasoning   7   295 - 311   2001.08( ISSN:1354-6783

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Kind of work:Single Work   International / domestic magazine:International journal  

    DOI: doi.org/10.1080/13546780143000053

  • 主観的期待効用モデルによるリスクテーキング行動の分析の試み-楽観性特性とリスク認知・行動の関係- Reviewed

    山祐嗣・吉村典子

    日本リスク研究学会誌   12   52 - 58   2000.09

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  • Wason選択課題における選択の主観的理由 Reviewed

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    教育心理学研究   47   11 - 18   1999.03( ISSN:0021-5015

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  • Wason 選択課題が推理研究にもたらすもの

    山祐嗣

    梅本尭夫(監修) 現代の認知研究 培風館   90 - 104   1999.03( ISBN:4563056219

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  • 推理と問題解決

    山祐嗣

    大村彰道(編) 教育心理学(1)発達と学習指導の心理学 東京大学出版会   111 - 130   1996.04( ISBN:4130520725

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  • 線形三段論法的推理において構成される表象

    山 祐嗣

    心理学研究   65   270 - 277   1994.08

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  • 問題解決と知能

    山祐嗣

    多鹿秀継(編)  認知と思考 サイエンス社   100 - 124   1994.04( ISBN:478190727X

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  • 演繹的推理

    山 祐嗣

    太田信夫・多鹿秀継(編) 認知心理学-理論とデータ-  誠信書房   162 - 175   1991.10( ISBN:4414301378

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  • Aptitude, task performance, and solution strategy of the three-term series problem.

    Umemoto, T & Kinjo, Y.

    Japanese Psychological Research   32   101 - 106   1990.06( ISSN:1468-5884

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  • 児童における線形序列構成の発達と熟達

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    教育心理学研究   36   166 - 171   1988.06( ISSN:0021-5015

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  • 三名辞系列問題の解決に及ぼす練習の効果 Reviewed

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    教育心理学研究   35   141 - 147   1987.06( ISSN:0021-5015

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Kind of work:Single Work  

  • Linguistic and spatial processings in solving three-term series problem Reviewed

    Japanese Psychological Research   29   197 - 201   1987.06( ISSN:1468-5884

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  • 三名辞系列問題の解決モデルの検討 Reviewed

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    心理学研究   58   84 - 90   1987.06

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  • 三名辞系列問題の2前提統合過程のコンポ-ネントモデル Reviewed

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    心理学評論   29   493 - 504   1986.12

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  • 三名辞系列問題の解決における方略 Reviewed

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    心理学研究   57   156 - 162   1986.08( ISSN:1884-1082

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Books and Other Publications

  • Human and Artificial Rationalities: Second International Conference Reviewed International journal

    Jean Baratgin, Baptiste Jacquet, Hiroshi Yama( Role: Joint editor)

    Springer  2024.03  ( ISBN:303155244X

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    Total pages:419   Responsible for pages:11   Book type:Scholarly book

  • 児童心理学・発達科学ハンドブック

    二宮 克美, 子安 増生, 河合 優年, 服部 環, 郷式 徹, 山 祐嗣, 小塩 真司, 仲 真紀子, 根ケ山 光一, 氏家 達夫( Role: Translator/Editor)

    福村出版  2022.08  ( ISBN:4571235100

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    Total pages:6068  

    ASIN

  • 心理学理論バトル : 心の疑問に挑戦する理論の楽しみ

    繁桝, 算男( Role: Contributor ,  8章 人間は論理的か──進化心理学と二重過程理論)

    新曜社  2021.09  ( ISBN:9784788517417

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    Total pages:viii, 212p  

    CiNii Books

  • Adapting human thinking and moral reasoning in contemporary society. International journal

    Hiroshi Yama, Veronique Salvano-Pardieu( Role: Edit ,  "Morality and Contemporary Civilization: A Dual Process Approach. " & "Laugh and Laughter as Adaptation in Human Being: Past and Present.")

    IGI Global  2019.11  ( ISBN:179981811X

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    Total pages:330   Responsible for pages:92-114, 156-175   Book type:Scholarly book

    Adapting Human Thinking and Moral Reasoning in Contemporary Society is an in-depth critical resource that provides comprehensive research on thinking and morality and its influence on societal norms as well as how people adapt themselves to the novel circumstances and phenomena that characterize the contemporary world, including low birthrate, the reduction of violence, and globalization. Furthermore, cultural differences are considered with research targeted towards problems specific to a culture. Featuring a wide range of topics such as logic education, cognition, and knowledge management systems, this book is ideal for academicians, sociologists, researchers, social scientists, psychologists, and students.

  • 「生きにくさ」はどこからくるのか : 進化が生んだ二種類の精神システムとグローバル化

    山 祐嗣( Role: Sole author)

    新曜社  2019  ( ISBN:9784788516403

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    Book type:Scholarly book

    CiNii Books

  • 「生きにくさ」はどこからくるのか : 進化が生んだ二種類の精神システムとグローバル化

    山 祐嗣( Role: Sole author)

    新曜社  2019  ( ISBN:9784788516403

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    Book type:Scholarly book

  • 健康的存在

    賴 偉寧, 寺嶋 正明, 山 祐嗣( Role: Sole author)

    ナカニシヤ出版  2018.06  ( ISBN:4779512662

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    Total pages:184   Book type:Scholarly book

    ASIN

    Other Link: https://images-fe.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/51d%2BFnXTPbL._SL75_.jpg

  • 第2巻 心理学概論 (公認心理師の基礎と実践)

    繁桝 算男, サトウ タツヤ, 高瀬 堅吉, 村上 郁也, 澤 幸祐, 川口 潤, 山 祐嗣, 中村 真, 上原 泉, 敷島 千鶴, 小塩 真司, 村本 由紀子, 石垣 琢麿, 繁桝 算男, 繁桝 算男, 野島 一彦( Role: Joint author)

    遠見書房  2018.04  ( ISBN:4866160527

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    Total pages:200  

    ASIN

  • 心理学って何だろうか? : 四千人の調査から見える期待と現実

    楠見, 孝, 日本心理学会(心理学の卒業論文は社会で役に立つのか? ―リサーチスキルの現代的意味)

    誠信書房  2018.02  ( ISBN:9784414311211

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    Total pages:xv, 187p  

    CiNii Books

  • The Routledge international handbook of thinking and reasoning. Oxon,

    Hiroshi Yama( Role: Contributor ,  Thinking and reasoning across cultures.)

    2018.01 

  • 健康的存在

    頼 偉寧, 寺嶋 正明, 山 祐嗣( Role: Sole author)

    ナカニシヤ出版  2018  ( ISBN:9784779512667

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    Book type:Scholarly book

    CiNii Books

  • 古典で読み解く現代の認知心理学

    マイケル・W.アイゼンク, デイヴィッド・グルーム( Role: Sole author)

    北大路書房  2017.09  ( ISBN:9784762829826

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    Total pages:320   Book type:Scholarly book

    ASIN

    Other Link: https://images-fe.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/51t26WBcdhL._SL75_.jpg

  • 認知発達研究の理論と方法 : 「私」の研究テーマとそのデザイン

    矢野, 喜夫, 岩田, 純一, 落合, 正行( Role: Contributor ,  推論研究の新パラダイム)

    金子書房  2016.06  ( ISBN:9784760830343

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    Total pages:v, 224p  

    CiNii Books

  • 日本人は論理的に考えることが本当に苦手なのか

    山 祐嗣( Role: Sole author)

    新曜社  2015.11  ( ISBN:4788514524

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    Total pages:178   Book type:Scholarly book

    ASIN

    Other Link: https://images-fe.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/4177kA7vcnL._SL75_.jpg

  • 思考と推論: 理性・判断・意思決定の心理学

    ケン マンクテロウ( Role: Sole author)

    北大路書房  2015.04  ( ISBN:4762828939

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    Total pages:378   Book type:Scholarly book

    ASIN

    Other Link: https://images-fe.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/51mZWFupHSL._SL75_.jpg

  • 発達科学入門

    高橋, 恵子, 湯川, 良三, 安藤, 寿康, 秋山, 弘子( Role: Contributor ,  青年の認知)

    東京大学出版会  2012  ( ISBN:9784130151429

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    Total pages:3冊  

    CiNii Books

  • 認知心理学 : 心のメカニズムを解き明かす

    仲, 真紀子( Role: Contributor ,  私たちはどのように考えるのか?―思考と問題解決)

    ミネルヴァ書房  2010.11  ( ISBN:9784623056835

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    Total pages:vii, 251p  

    CiNii Books

  • 発達と学習 (現代の認知心理学5)

    市川 伸一, 秋田 喜代美, 針生 悦子, 藤村 宣之, 山 祐嗣, 村山 航, 遠藤 利彦, 植阪 友理, 犬塚 美輪, 瀬尾 美紀子, 湯澤 正通, 今井 むつみ, 佐治 伸郎, 市川 伸一, 日本認知心理学会( Role: Joint author)

    北大路書房  2010.08  ( ISBN:4762827207

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    Total pages:360  

    ASIN

  • 基礎から学ぶ心理学・臨床心理学

    山 祐嗣, 小林 知博, 山口 素子( Role: Sole author)

    北大路書房  2009.04  ( ISBN:4762826723

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    Total pages:268   Book type:Scholarly book

    ASIN

    Other Link: https://images-fe.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/51pDm%2Ba6XEL._SL75_.jpg

  • 基礎から学ぶ心理学・臨床心理学

    山口素子・小林知博( Role: Supervisor (editorial))

    北大路書房  2009.04  ( ISBN:4762826723

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    Book type:Scholarly book

  • 認知心理学概論

    高野, 陽太郎, 波多野, 誼余夫( Role: Contributor ,  推論)

    放送大学教育振興会  2006.03  ( ISBN:4595306105

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    Total pages:172p  

    CiNii Books

  • Special Issue of Psychologia on Reasoning

    Manktelow, K. I.( Role: Supervisor (editorial))

    Psychologia  2004.12  ( ISSN:0033-2852

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    Responsible for pages:4  

  • メンタリティの構造改革-健全な競争社会に向けて

    -( Role: Sole author)

    北大路書房  2003.12  ( ISBN:4762823457

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    Book type:Scholarly book

  • 思考・進化・文化―日本人の思考力

    -( Role: Sole author)

    ナカニシヤ出版  2003.07  ( ISBN:4888487944

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    Book type:Scholarly book

  • 合理性と推理

    -( Role: Sole translator)

    ナカニシヤ出版  2000.04  ( ISBN:4888485224

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    Book type:Scholarly book

  • 演繹推理の認知モデル

    -( Role: Sole author)

    ナカニシヤ出版  1994.05  ( ISBN:488848239X

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    Book type:Scholarly book

  • 思考

    -( Role: Sole author)

    佐藤薫(編) 心理学マインド ナカニシヤ出版  1993.04  ( ISBN:488848175X

  • 行動と深層の心理学

    山愛美( Role: Joint author)

    学術図書出版  1993.04  ( ISBN:4873614627

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    Book type:Scholarly book

  • 情報処理の心理学

    多鹿秀嗣・川口潤・池上知子・山祐嗣( Role: Joint author)

    サイエンス社  1992.02  ( ISBN:4781906397

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    Book type:Scholarly book

  • 児童心理学の進歩 2017年版(VOL.56)

    日本児童研究所, 山田 洋子, 橋口 英俊, 湯川 良三, 佐々木 正人, 松沢 哲郎, 内田 伸子, 近藤 邦夫, 高橋 恵子, 湯川 隆子, 稲垣 佳世子, 平木 典子, 氏家 達夫, 斉藤 こずゑ, 河合 優年, 山 祐嗣, 高橋 知音, 藤田 博康

    金子書房  ( ISBN:9784760899579

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  • 児童心理学の進歩 2015年版(VOL.54)

    日本児童研究所, 山田 洋子, 橋口 英俊, 湯川 良三, 佐々木 正人, 松沢 哲郎, 内田 伸子, 近藤 邦夫, 高橋 恵子, 湯川 隆子, 稲垣 佳世子, 平木 典子, 氏家 達夫, 斉藤 こずゑ, 河合 優年, 山 祐嗣, 高橋 知音, 藤田 博康

    金子書房  ( ISBN:9784760899555

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MISC

  • 推論

    -

    児童心理学の進歩(金子書房)   52   27 - 53   2013.06( ISBN:9784760899531

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    Publishing type:Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (other)  

  • 推論

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    高野陽太郎・波多野誼余夫(編) 認知心理学概論 放送大学教育振興会   126 - 135   2006.05( ISBN:4595306105

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    Publishing type:Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (other)   Kind of work:Single Work  

  • 推論

    -

    児童心理学の進歩(金子書房)   34   67 - 90   1995.06( ISBN:9784760899364

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    Publishing type:Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (scientific journal)   Kind of work:Single Work  

  • If easterners are illogical when reasoning, then what does this mean? Reviewed

    Hiroshi Yama

    The Thinking Mind: A Festschrift for Ken Manktelow   166 - 177   2016.10

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    Publishing type:Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (scientific journal)   Kind of work:Single Work  

    DOI: 10.4324/9781315676074

  • Research on reasoning and its expansion Reviewed

    Yama Hiroshi

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY   51   169   2016.07( ISSN:0020-7594

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    Publishing type:Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (scientific journal)   Kind of work:Single Work  

  • Cultural differences in reasoning between Westerners and Easterners Reviewed

    Yama Hiroshi

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY   51   169 - 170   2016.07( ISSN:0020-7594

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    Publishing type:Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (scientific journal)   Kind of work:Single Work  

  • Measurement of personal space by a real world situation method

    Yamaguchi Chiaki, Yama Hiroshi

    ( 16 )   1 - 8   2016.03( ISSN:1346-2857

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    The present study measured"personal space"using the real world situation method (Novelli et al.,2010), and examined the influence of two factors (degree of intimacy/height)hypothesized to affect preference for personal space.Each female participant(N=34)was asked to discuss a familiar topic (a filler task) with a confederate and to adjust the distance between her seat and the confederate's so as to create a comfortable personal space. Participants were assigned to either a high-intimacy condition with a known confederate or low-intimacy condition with an unknown confederate.When participants were unfamiliar with the confederate, they maintained a larger personal space. Furthermore, taller participants tended to maintain a larger personal space. These results, in conjunction with the results from a follow-up questionnaire,suggest that people create physical distance not so much as a form of self-protection, but rather as a way to demonstrate consideration for others.

    DOI: 10.18910/57809

    CiNii Article

    Other URL: http://hdl.handle.net/11094/57809

  • A perspective of cross-cultural psychological studies for global business Reviewed

    Hiroshi Yama

    Handbook of Research on Impacts of International Business and Political Affairs on the Global Economy   185 - 206   2016.01

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    Publishing type:Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (scientific journal)   Kind of work:Single Work  

    © 2016 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. Some may still have a stereotypical image that Japanese employees work like a robot, and achieved the industrial development even though they are not logical thinkers. This chapter is against this based on the latest cross-cultural studies. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Even if Japanese appears to be illogical in the sense that they are less likely to do rule-based thinking, this does not means that they are less intelligent. (2) Easterners are more likely to do dialectical thinking. (3) Easterners' naïve dialecticism is strongly associated with cultural tradition, and it is plausible that it has been developed in a highcontext culture. (4) Japanese people may have a collectivist culture, and it is not an undeveloped culture comparing with an individualist culture as shown in the case of 'nemawashi'. Finally, it is proposed that the distinction between Westerners' low-context culture and Easterners' high-context culture provide important implications for globalizing business and that the notions of global mindset and 'glocal' are important for international business.

    DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9806-2.ch010

    J-GLOBAL

  • Two methods to measure the level of trust of Americans and Japanese: A cross-cultural study Reviewed

    Hiromi Yamaguchi, Gary L. Brase, Hiroshi Yama

    SAGE Open   4 ( 4 )   2014.01( ISSN:2158-2440

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    © The Author(s) 2014. Interpersonal trust of Japanese and Americans was investigated using two methods: a General Trust Questionnaire and a scenario judgments task, in which participants were asked to rate how strongly they trust a target person in a series of vignettes. Participants were grouped into two conditions, with the target person being either an in-group member or an outgroup member. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether Americans have a higher level of trust than Japanese do, to test the in-group hypothesis which predicts that the difference in trust between the two conditions is greater for Japanese than for Americans and the dialectical thought hypothesis which predicts that the correlation between the General Trust Questionnaire score and the scenario judgments task score would only occur in the Americans’ data. The study, which was conducted with American (n = 105) and Japanese (n = 102) participants, found no differences in the trust level between Americans and Japanese in both methods. The results did not support the in-group hypothesis, but did support the dialectical thought hypothesis, indicating that Japanese are more dialectical in judging how they trust others.

    DOI: 10.1177/2158244014556991

    J-GLOBAL

  • 私たちはどのように考えるのか?―思考と問題解決

    -

    仲真紀子(編) 認知心理学 ミネルバ書房   149 - 168   2010.11( ISBN:9784623056835

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    Publishing type:Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (other)   Kind of work:Single Work  

  • The choosing versus rejecting of a person : An explanation of self-critical bias Reviewed

    TANIGUCHI Junichi, YAMA Hiroshi, KAWASAKI Yayoi, HORISHITA Tomoko, NISHIOKA Miwa

    日本社会心理学会, Japanese Journal of Social Psychology ( Before 1996, Research in Social Psychology )   21 ( 3 )   226 - 232   2006.02( ISSN:09161503

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    Publishing type:Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (scientific journal)  

    Shafir (1993) found that people select an alternative which is positive on some dimensions and negative on others more often than one with average dimensions. We applied his methodology to the choice of a person. It is argued that Japanese people prefer a person with an average disposition. But is it that they really prefer this or that they believe that others do? We presented a scenario where two persons wanted to join a party with your group. One was positive on some dimensions and negative on others, whereas the other had an average disposition. One hundred and seven female students were asked to choose one of the two persons, and 113 female students were asked to reject one of the two. They were also asked to infer which person the other members of their group would choose or reject. The results were that our participants chose and rejected the person with positive and negative dimensions in the self-decision condition, whereas they inferred that other members would choose the average person. These imply that self-critical bias may reflect an adaptive strategy as to the selection of persons.

    DOI: 10.14966/jssp.KJ00004065962

    CiNii Article

  • Special issue: Reasoning (vol 47, pg 205, 2004)

    H Yama, KI Manktelow

    PSYCHOLOGIA   48 ( 1 )   2005.03( ISSN:0033-2852

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Presentations

  • Academic writing as communication in a low-context culture: Are Japanese in a high-context culture not good academic writers?

    Hiroshi Yama

    5th International Symposium on Academic Writing and Critical Thinking.  2024.02 

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    Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

  • Are humans moral creatures? A dual-process approach for natural experiments of history.

    Hiroshi Yama

    2nd International Conference on Human and Artificial Rationalities  2023.09 

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    Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

  • 低コンテクスト文化が形成される要因:文化多様性および関係流動性 Domestic conference

    呉 長憶・山 祐嗣

    日本社会心理学会第64回大会  2023.09  日本社会心理学会

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    Venue:上智大学  

  • Cultural differences in preference for enthymemes: A cross-cultural study of the Japanese, Koreans, Taiwanese, French, and British. International coauthorship Domestic conference

    Yama, H., Do, K. S., Galbraith, N., Zakaria, N., Salvano-Pardieu, V., & Chiu, M.

    2023.07 

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    Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

  • 予測される後悔と不確実性 Domestic conference

    松本小春・山祐嗣

    日本認知心理学会第21回大会  2023.07  日本認知心理学会

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    Presentation type:Poster presentation  

    Venue:東京都立大学  

  • 医療におけるスティグマの患者心理について Invited

    山祐嗣

    2022 年度 富山県中新川郡医師会学術講演会「シリーズ 日本の医療と格差社会」  2022.11 

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    Presentation type:Public lecture, seminar, tutorial, course, or other speech  

  • Contemporary social fragmentation and political polarization: A dual-process approach Invited

    Yama, H

    International conference: Human and Artificial Rationalities  2022.09 

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    Presentation type:Oral presentation (invited, special)  

  • 判断能力の育成に向けて Invited

    山 祐嗣

    令和 3 年度 秋田県看護教員継続研修  2022.01 

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    Presentation type:Public lecture, seminar, tutorial, course, or other speech  

  • 判断能力の育成に向けて Invited

    山 祐嗣

    令和 3 年度 奈良県看護教員継続研修  2021.10 

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    Presentation type:Public lecture, seminar, tutorial, course, or other speech  

  • 思考の文化差—地勢的・生態的要因から文化多様性を考える Invited

    山 祐嗣

    日本科学基礎論学会第66回年次大会  2021.06 

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    Presentation type:Oral presentation (invited, special)  

  • 東洋人の弁証法的思考ー子どもの発達と教育 Invited

    山 祐嗣

    嘉南藥理大學招待講演  2019.09 

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    Presentation type:Public lecture, seminar, tutorial, course, or other speech  

  • Hindsight bias in judgements of the predictability of flash floods: An experimental study for a court trial.

    Hiroshi Yama

    The 12th London Reasoning Workshop  2019.07 

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    Presentation type:Symposium, workshop panel (public)  

  • 二重過程理論―進化的に新しいシステムは古いシステムから出力を修正しているのか? Invited

    山 祐嗣

    日本認知科学会第34回大会 本田秀仁・中村國則(企画)オーガナイズドセッション (IR)RATIONALIRY in J.D.M.  2017.09 

  • Explanations for cultural differences in reasoning: Easterners’ dialectical reasoning and Westerners’ rule-based reasoning.

    Hiroshi Yama

    The 10th London Reasoning Workshop  2017.07 

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    Presentation type:Symposium, workshop panel (public)  

  • 想起意図・特定性・手がかりが自伝的記憶の特性に及ぼす影響 Domestic conference

    西 優里, 山 祐嗣

    日本心理学会大会発表論文集  2015.08  (公社)日本心理学会

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    Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

  • Culture and inference: High context and low context.

    Hiroshi Yama

    The 6th London Reasoning Workshop  2011.08 

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    Presentation type:Symposium, workshop panel (public)  

  • Cognition and culture: Processing models for hindsight bias.

    Hiroshi Yama

    The 4th London Reasoning Workshop  2009.07 

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    Presentation type:Symposium, workshop panel (public)  

  • Cultural differences in hindsight bias.

    Hiroshi Yama, Ken I. Manktelow, Hugo Mercier, Jean-Baptiste Van, der Henst, Kyung Soo Do, Yayoi Kawasaki, Kuniko Adachi

    31st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society  2009.07 

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    Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

  • Cognition and culture: Processing models for hindsight bias. Invited

    Hiroshi Yama

    Seminar Series Spring 2009, University of Portsmouth  2009.02 

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    Presentation type:Public lecture, seminar, tutorial, course, or other speech  

  • Hindsight bias and holistic thinking: A cross-cultural study. Invited

    Hiroshi Yama, Ken I. Manktelow, Hugo Mercier, Jean-Baptiste Van, der Henst, Kyung Soo Do, Yayoi Kawasaki, Kuniko Adachi

    International Conference on Learning Competency (Brain Korea 21 Program)  2008.01 

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    Presentation type:Symposium, workshop panel (nominated)  

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Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research

  • Religious moral reasoning in the frame of dual process approach: Cultural differences in religious moral reasoning and thinking style.

    2023

  • コンテクストへの依存と省略三段論法の許容度についての比較文化的研究

    2023

Joint research

  • Religious moral reasoning in the frame of dual process approach: Cultural differences in religious moral reasoning and thinking style.

    2021.10

Outline of education staff

  • 心理学研究法、知覚・認知心理学特論、文化心理学特論、その他卒業研究・学部や大学院の演習を担当している。

Charge of on-campus class subject

  • 修士論文

    2023   Intensive lecture   Graduate school

  • 心理学研究指導1

    2023   Intensive lecture   Graduate school

  • 心理学総合研究演習1

    2023   Weekly class   Graduate school

  • 心理学基礎問題研究

    2023   Weekly class   Graduate school

  • 知覚・認知心理学特論

    2023   Weekly class   Undergraduate

  • 心理学実験演習2(心理学実験)

    2023   Weekly class   Undergraduate

  • 心理学研究法1

    2023   Weekly class   Undergraduate

  • 心理学特殊研究A

    2023   Weekly class   Graduate school

  • 認知のしくみ

    2023   Weekly class   Graduate school

  • 心理学論文指導

    2023   Intensive lecture   Graduate school

  • 心理学論文指導

    2023   Intensive lecture   Graduate school

  • 心理学研究演習Ⅰ

    2023   Weekly class   Undergraduate

  • 卒業論文演習Ⅰ

    2023   Intensive lecture   Undergraduate

  • 卒業論文

    2023   Intensive lecture   Undergraduate

  • 心理学研究指導2

    2023   Intensive lecture   Graduate school

  • 心理学総合研究演習2

    2023   Weekly class   Graduate school

  • 心理学基礎問題研究演習

    2023   Weekly class   Graduate school

  • 心理学研究法2

    2023   Weekly class   Undergraduate

  • 博士論文

    2023   Intensive lecture   Graduate school

  • 心理学論文指導

    2023   Intensive lecture   Graduate school

  • 心理学研究演習Ⅱ

    2023   Weekly class   Undergraduate

  • 卒業論文演習Ⅱ

    2023   Intensive lecture   Undergraduate

  • 心理学特殊研究B

    2023   Weekly class   Graduate school

  • 心理学研究法ⅠⅡ

    2018     Undergraduate

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Number of papers published by graduate students

  • 2023

    Number of undergraduate student / college student presentations:Number of graduate students presentations:3

Number of instructed thesis, researches

  • 2023

    Number of instructed the graduation thesis:Number of graduation thesis reviews:11

    [Number of instructed the Master's Program] (previous term):[Number of instructed the Master's Program] (letter term):1

    [Number of master's thesis reviews] (chief):[Number of master's thesis reviews] (vice-chief):1

    [Number of doctoral thesis reviews] (chief):[Number of doctoral thesis reviews] (vice-chief):0

Social Activities

  • 大阪府立今宮高等学校分野理解ガイダンス

    Role(s): Lecturer

    大阪府立今宮高等学校  2013.07

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    Audience: High school students

    Type:Cooperation with government and educational institutions

    大阪府立今宮高等学校において、1年生を対象に、大学進学のための指針として、心理学についての授業を行なった。

  • 出張講義

    今宮高校  2013.07

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    Audience: High school students

    Type:Visiting lecture

    Number of participants:50(人)

  • 大阪府立今宮高等学校分野理解ガイダンス

    Role(s): Lecturer

    大阪府立今宮高等学校  2012.07

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    Audience: High school students

    Type:Cooperation with government and educational institutions

    大阪府立今宮高等学校において、1年生を対象に、大学進学のための指針として、心理学についての授業を行なった。

Media Coverage

  • 書評 スティーヴン・ピンカー著『人はどこまで合理的か』草思社 Newspaper, magazine

    公明新聞  2022.10

  • 「運命を変える方法」の科学 Newspaper, magazine

    週刊現代  2022.03

  • 「そうだった気が」無意識な記憶変化―後知恵バイアス 裁判などに影響も Newspaper, magazine

    産経新聞  2021.03

  • 東洋的コミュニケーションが引きこもりに影響? Internet

    Medical Tribune 健康ニュース あなたの健康百科  2019.07

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    SDGs:

  • 素質・才能・向き不向き ①才能って何? TV or radio program

    NHK  ふれあいラジオパーティ  1996.09

Academic Activities

  • The 2024 International Conference on Thinking

    Role(s): Planning, management, etc., Peer review

    2024.01 - 2024.02

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    Type:Peer review 

  • 都市文化研究

    Role(s): Peer review

    2023.09 - 2023.10

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    Type:Peer review 

  • Intelligence

    Role(s): Peer review

    2023.04 - 2023.05

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    Type:Peer review 

  • Psychology Research and Practice

    Role(s): Peer review

    2023.01 - 2023.03

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    Type:Peer review 

Foreigner acceptance

  • 2023

    International Students :1