2024/02/13 更新

写真a

ヒロノ テツロウ
廣野 哲朗
HIRONO TETSURO
担当
大学院理学研究科 地球学専攻 教授
理学部 地球学科
職名
教授
所属
理学研究院
所属キャンパス
杉本キャンパス

担当・職階

  • 大学院理学研究科 地球学専攻 

    教授  2022年04月 - 継続中

  • 理学部 地球学科 

    教授  2022年04月 - 継続中

取得学位

  • 博士(理学) ( 東京工業大学 )

研究分野

  • 自然科学一般 / 固体地球科学

研究キーワード

  • 地震

  • 地層処分

  • 固体地球物理学

  • テクトニクス

  • 活断層

所属学協会

  • 日本地球惑星科学連合

  • 日本地震学会

  • 日本活断層学会

  • アメリカ地球物理学連合

委員歴(学外)

  • 委員   日本原子力研究開発機構 核燃料・バックエンド研究開発部門 深地層の研究施設計画検討委員会  

    2022年12月 - 継続中 

  • 深地層の研究施設計画検討委員会   日本原子力研究開発機構  

    2022年11月 - 2023年03月 

  • 委員   一般社団法人日本原子力学会 特別専門委員会  

    2022年05月 - 2024年03月 

  • 外部有識者委員   経済産業省 地層処分研究開発調整会議  

    2022年04月 - 2023年03月 

  • 専門委員   大阪地方裁判所・大阪高等裁判所  

    2012年01月 - 継続中 

受賞歴

  • 平成29年度 大阪大学賞 (若手研究者部門)

    廣野 哲朗

    2017年11月   大阪大学   海溝型及び内陸型地震の断層滑り挙動と長期活動性についての研究

  • 平成27年度 大阪大学総長顕彰(教育部門)

    廣野哲朗

    2015年05月   大阪大学  

職務経歴(学外)

  • 大阪大学   全学教育推進機構   非常勤講師

    2022年10月 - 継続中

  • 大阪大学   大学院理学研究科 宇宙地球科学専攻   准教授

    2006年10月 - 2022年03月

  • 国立研究開発法人海洋研究開発機構   常勤研究員

    2002年12月 - 2006年09月

  • 独立行政法人日本学術振興会   特別研究員PD

    2001年04月 - 2002年11月

  • 独立行政法人日本学術振興会   特別研究員DC2

    1999年01月 - 2001年03月

論文

  • Characteristics of Fault Rocks Within the Aftershock Cloud of the 2014 Orkney Earthquake (M5.5) Beneath the Moab Khotsong Gold Mine, South Africa 査読 国際共著

    Miyamoto, T., Hirono, T., Yokoyama, Y., Kaneki, S., Yamamoto, Y., Ishikawa, T., Tsuchiyama, A. Katayama, I., Yabe, Y., Ziegler, M., Durrheim, R. J., Ogasawara, H.

    Geophysical Research Letters   49 ( 14 )   2022年07月( ISSN:0094-8276

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   国際・国内誌:国際誌  

    DOI: 10.1029/2022gl098745

    その他URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full-xml/10.1029/2022GL098745

    リポジトリURL: http://hdl.handle.net/10466/0002000210

  • Mechanical amorphization of synthetic fault gouges during rotary‐shear friction experiments at subseismic to seismic slip velocities 査読

    Shunya Kaneki, Kiyokazu Oohashi, Tetsuro Hirono, Hiroyuki Noda

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth   125 ( 10 )   2020年10月( ISSN:2169-9313

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1029/2020jb019956

    その他URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full-xml/10.1029/2020JB019956

  • Generation of sintered fault rock and its implications for earthquake energetics and fault healing 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Shunya Kaneki, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa, Jun Kameda, Naoya Tonoike, Akihiro Ito, Yuji Miyazaki

    Communications Earth & Environment   1 ( 1 )   2020年08月

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1038/s43247-020-0004-z

    その他URL: http://www.nature.com/articles/s43247-020-0004-z

  • Diagenetic and shear-induced transitions of frictional strength of carbon-bearing faults and their implications for earthquake rupture dynamics in subduction zones 査読

    Shunya Kaneki, Tetsuro Hirono

    Scientific Reports   9 ( 1 )   7884   2019年05月

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-44307-y

    PubMed

    その他URL: http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-44307-y

  • Role of weak materials in earthquake rupture dynamics 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Kenichi Tsuda, Shunya Kaneki

    Scientific Reports   9 ( 1 )   6604   2019年04月

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-43118-5

    PubMed

    その他URL: http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-43118-5

  • Kinetic effect of heating rate on the thermal maturity of carbonaceous material as an indicator of frictional heat during earthquakes 査読

    Shunya Kaneki, Tetsuro Hirono

    Earth, Planets and Space   70 ( 1 )   2018年12月( ISSN:1880-5981

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Because the maximum temperature reached in the slip zone is significant information for understanding slip behaviors during an earthquake, the maturity of carbonaceous material (CM) is widely used as a proxy for detecting frictional heat recorded by fault rocks. The degree of maturation of CM is controlled not only by maximum temperature but also by the heating rate. Nevertheless, maximum slip zone temperature has been estimated previously by comparing the maturity of CM in natural fault rocks with that of synthetic products heated at rates of about 1 °C s−1, even though this rate is much lower than the actual heating rate during an earthquake. In this study, we investigated the kinetic effect of the heating rate on the CM maturation process by performing organochemical analyses of CM heated at slow (1 °C s−1) and fast (100 °C s−1) rates. The results clearly showed that a higher heating rate can inhibit the maturation reactions of CM
    for example, extinction of aliphatic hydrocarbon chains occurred at 600 °C at a heating rate of 1 °C s−1 and at 900 °C at a heating rate of 100 °C s−1. However, shear-enhanced mechanochemical effects can also promote CM maturation reactions and may offset the effect of a high heating rate. We should thus consider simultaneously the effects of both heating rate and mechanochemistry on CM maturation to establish CM as a more rigorous proxy for frictional heat recorded by fault rocks and for estimating slip behaviors during earthquake.[Figure not available: see fulltext.].

    DOI: 10.1186/s40623-018-0868-7

  • Slip parameters on major thrusts at a convergent plate boundary: regional heterogeneity of potential slip distance at the shallow portion of the subducting plate 査読

    Hideki Mukoyoshi, Shunya Kaneki, Tetsuro Hirono

    Earth, Planets and Space   70 ( 1 )   2018年12月( ISSN:1880-5981

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Understanding variations of slip distance along major thrust systems at convergent margins is an important issue for evaluation of near-trench slip and the potential generation of large tsunamis. We derived quantitative estimates of slip along ancient subduction fault systems by using the maturity of carbonaceous material (CM) of discrete slip zones as a proxy for temperature. We first obtained the Raman spectra of CM in ultracataclasite and pseudotachylyte layers in discrete slip zones at depths below the seafloor of 1–4 km and 2.5–5.5 km, respectively. By comparing the area-under-the-peak ratios of graphitic and disordered bands in those Raman spectra with spectra of experimentally heated CM from surrounding rocks, we determined that the ultracataclasite and pseudotachylyte layers had been heated to temperatures of up to 700 and 1300 °C, respectively. Numerical simulation of the thermal history of CM extracted from rocks near the two slip zones, taking into consideration these temperature constraints, indicated that slip distances in the ultracataclasite and pseudotachylyte layers were more than 3 and 7 m, respectively. Thus, potential distance of coseismic slip along the subduction-zone fault system could have regional variations even at shallow depth (≤ 5.5 km). The slip distances we determined probably represent minimum slips for subduction-zone thrusts and thus provide an important contribution to earthquake preparedness plans in coastal areas facing the Nankai and Sagami Troughs.[Figure not available: see fulltext.].

    DOI: 10.1186/s40623-018-0810-z

  • Mechanochemical Effect on Maturation of Carbonaceous Material: Implications for Thermal Maturity as a Proxy for Temperature in Estimation of Coseismic Slip Parameters 査読

    Shunya Kaneki, Tatsuya Ichiba, Tetsuro Hirono

    Geophysical Research Letters   45 ( 5 )   2248 - 2256   2018年03月( ISSN:1944-8007

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076791

  • Tectono-seismic characteristics of faults in the shallow portion of an accretionary prism 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa

    Tectonophysics   724-725   179 - 194   2018年01月( ISSN:0040-1951

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    To understand the tectono-seismic evolution of faults in the shallow part of a subduction–accretion system, we examined major faults in a fossil accretionary prism, the Emi Group (Hota Group), Boso Peninsula, Japan, by performing multiple structural, geochemical, and mineralogical analyses. Because the strata are relatively shallow (burial depth, 1–4 km), early stage deformation related to subduction, accretion, and uplifting processes is well preserved in three dominant fault zones. On the basis of both previous findings and our geochemical and mineralogical results, we inferred that early stage faulting in a near-trench setting under high pore fluid pressure and second stage faulting at relatively deep along subduction corresponded to aseismic deformations, as shown by velocity strengthening characteristics
    and during late stage faulting, probably in association with accretion and uplift processes, a high-temperature fluid, revealed by a geochemical temperature proxy, triggered fault weakening by a thermal pressurization mechanism, and potentially led to the generation of a tsunami.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2018.01.014

  • Preservation of amorphous ultrafine material: A proposed proxy for slip during recent earthquakes on active faults 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Satoru Asayama, Shunya Kaneki, Akihiro Ito

    Scientific Reports   6   2016年11月( ISSN:2045-2322

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1038/srep36536

  • Organochemical characteristics of carbonaceous materials as indicators of heat recorded on an ancient plate‐subduction fault 査読

    Shunya Kaneki, Tetsuro Hirono, Hideki Mukoyoshi, Yoshikazu Sampei, Minoru Ikehara

    Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems   17 ( 7 )   2855 - 2868   2016年07月( ISSN:1525-2027

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1002/2016GC006368

  • Heterogeneity in friction strength of an active fault by incorporation of fragments of the surrounding host rock 査読

    Naoki Kato, Tetsuro Hirono

    Earth, Planets and Space   68   2016年07月( ISSN:1880-5981

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1186/s40623-016-0512-3

  • Near-trench slip potential of megaquakes evaluated from fault properties and conditions 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Kenichi Tsuda, Wataru Tanikawa, Jean-Paul Ampuero, Bunichiro Shibazaki, Masataka Kinoshita, James J. Mori

    Scientific Reports   6   2016年06月( ISSN:2045-2322

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1038/srep28184

  • Blackening of fault gouge by comminution and pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials during earthquake slip 査読

    Shunya Kaneki, Tetsuro Hirono

    Tectonophysics   677   160 - 170   2016年05月( ISSN:0040-1951

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2016.03.039

  • Investigation of the records of earthquake slip in carbonaceous materials from the Taiwan Chelungpu fault by means of infrared and Raman spectroscopies 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Yuka Maekawa, Hikaru Yabuta

    Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems   16 ( 5 )   1233 - 1253   2015年05月( ISSN:1525-2027

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005622

  • Trace element anomaly in fault rock induced by coseismic hydrothermal reactions reproduced in laboratory friction experiments 査読

    Wataru Tanikawa, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa, Go Honda, Tetsuro Hirono, Osamu Tadai

    Geophysical Research Letters   42 ( 9 )   3210 - 3217   2015年05月( ISSN:0094-8276

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063195

  • 阿寺断層田瀬露頭における断層ガウジの鉱物学的・地球化学的特徴 査読

    加藤 尚希, 廣野 哲朗, 石川 剛志, 大谷 具幸

    活断層研究   2015 ( 43 )   1 - 16   2015年

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    <p>We investigated structural, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the fault rocks from the active Atera fault, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. We recognized three dominant structural zones at the Tase outcrop: light gray fault gouge, brown fault gouge and black fault breccia. The light gray fault gouge is mainly composed of clay minerals, and exhibited intense shear foliation. The brown fault gouge shows the clearest linear continuity at the outcrop, cutting other structural zones, but the degree of shearing in this zone is relatively weak. The black fault breccia is composed of rock fragments, originated from surrounding host rocks, and black matrix. Fault rocks in these structural zones show fluid-mobile trace element compositions essentially consistent with those of host rocks, indicating that no fluid–rock interaction at high temperatures above 250 ºC took place in these fault zones.</p><p>Based on these features of each zone and their cross-cutting relationship at the outcrop, we inferred the structural evolution of the fault zone. The light grey fault gouge and the black fault breccia formed since the Atera fault became active. Under oxidative condition, water might react with minerals in both zones to form smectite and halloysite. The brown fault gouge formed most recently, possibly by the 1586 Tensho earthquake. Mineralogical and geochemical analyses of the fault rocks used in this study could be useful for understanding the structural and chemical evolution of the active faults.</p>

    DOI: 10.11462/afr.2015.43_1

    CiNii Article

  • Stress rotations and the long-term weakness of the Median Tectonic Line and the Rokko-Awaji Segment 査読

    Vincent Famin, Hugues Raimbourg, Sebastian Garcia, Nicolas Bellahsen, Yohei Hamada, Anne-Marie Boullier, Olivier Fabbri, Laurent Michon, Takahiko Uchide, Tullio Ricci, Tetsuro Hirono, Kuniyo Kawabata

    TECTONICS   33 ( 10 )   1900 - 1919   2014年10月( ISSN:0278-7407

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    We used a field analysis of rock deformation microstructures and mesostructures to reconstruct the long-term orientation of stresses around two major active fault systems in Japan, the Median Tectonic Line and the Rokko-Awaji Segment. Our study reveals that the dextral slip of the two fault systems, active since the Plio-Quaternary, was preceded by fault normal extension in the Miocene and sinistral wrenching in the Paleogene. The two fault systems deviated the regional stress field at the kilometer scale in their vicinity during each of the three tectonic regimes. The largest deviation, found in the Plio-Quaternary, is a more fault normal rotation of the maximum horizontal stress to an angle of 79 degrees with the fault strands, suggesting an extremely low shear stress on the Median Tectonic Line and the Rokko-Awaji Segment. Possible causes of this long-term stress perturbation include a nearly total release of shear stress during earthquakes, a low static friction coefficient, or low elastic properties of the fault zones compared with the country rock. Independently of the preferred interpretation, the nearly fault normal orientation of the direction of maximum compression suggests that the mechanical properties of the fault zones are inadequate for the buildup of a pore fluid pressure sufficiently elevated to activate slip. The long-term weakness of the Median Tectonic Line and the Rokko-Awaji Segment may reside in low-friction/low-elasticity materials or dynamic weakening rather than in preearthquake fluid overpressures.

    DOI: 10.1002/2014TC003600

  • Re-evaluation of frictional heat recorded in the dark gouge of the shallow part of a megasplay fault at the Nankai Trough 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa, Hirokazu Masumoto, Jun Kameda, Hikaru Yabuta, Hideki Mukoyoshi

    TECTONOPHYSICS   626   157 - 169   2014年06月( ISSN:0040-1951

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Because a megasplay fault branching from the deep subduction boundary megathrust in the Nankai Trough is thought to be the source of large tsunamis associated with past Tonankai earthquakes, investigation of the heat signal due to frictional slip recorded in the fault is important for estimating the earthquake slip parameters. We performed X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic analyses of a megasplay fault-rock sample and re-examined previously reported trace-element and isotope compositions, but observed no specific change related to high temperature (&gt;= 250 degrees C). In addition, although a qualitative increase of the illite content in illite/smectite mixed-layer minerals within the slip-zone sample was previously reported, our kinetic evaluation of illitization, taking into consideration the coseismic temperature change due to frictional heating and heat conduction, revealed that the illitization reaction hardly progresses at temperatures under 250 degrees C. Alternatively, we suggest that the illite content in mixed-layer minerals might increase progressively via a comminution-dissolution-recrystallization process during multiple past slips. Accurate assessment of the slip behavior of the megasplay fault could be efficiently obtained by drilling to penetrate the fault zone at a deeper depth of approximately 1.5 km, where records of high temperatures would be detectable. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2014.04.020

  • Mineral assemblage anomalies in the slip zone of the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake: Ultrafine particles preserved only in the latest slip zone 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Jun Kameda, Hiroki Kanda, Wataru Tanikawa, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   41 ( 9 )   3052 - 3059   2014年05月( ISSN:0094-8276

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    We determined mineral assemblages of samples from the Taiwan Chelungpu fault and from milling and heating experiments by using X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The fault system contains three dominant fault zones, the shallowest of which slipped during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The quartz and clay mineral contents of the primary slip zone were low, and it contained partly amorphous ultrafine particles (several tens of nanometers). Up to 30 weight percent of materials in that zone could not be fit to standard diffraction patterns, whereas nearly 100 weight percent of those in surrounding samples could be. The unfitted component could be attributed to the observed ultrafine particles produced by comminution during the earthquake, because weak diffraction intensities are caused from mineral lattice distortion, granulation, and amorphous coatings. Such particles are a potential proxy for identifying the slip zone of the most recent earthquake along a fault.

    DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059805

  • Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of fault gouge in the Median Tectonic Line, Japan: evidence for earthquake slip 査読

    Tsuyoshi Ishikawa, Tetsuro Hirono, Noriko Matsuta, Kazuro Kawamoto, Koichiro Fujimoto, Jun Kameda, Yoshiro Nishio, Yuka Maekawa, Go Honda

    EARTH PLANETS AND SPACE   66   2014年05月( ISSN:1880-5981

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    We carried out geochemical and mineralogical analyses on fault-zone rocks from the Anko section of the Median Tectonic Line in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, to investigate coseismic physicochemical processes in the fault zone. The latest fault zone in the Anko section contains cataclasite, fault breccia, and fault gouge of granitic composition, and brecciated basic schist. Protoliths of the granitic composition are from the Ryoke metamorphic belt and those of the basic schist from the Sambagawa metamorphic belt. X-ray diffraction analyses show a selective decrease of clay minerals coupled with an increase of amorphous phase in an intensely deformed layer of black gouge (5- to 10-cm thick). SEM observation reveals that the black gouge is characterized by a drastic reduction of grain size and abundant ultrafine particles of submicrometer to several tens of nanometers with well-rounded spheroidal shapes. These observations for the black gouge are indicative of strong mineral lattice distortion and granulation associated with earthquake slip. Geochemically, the black gouge is characterized by distinctly higher Li content and Sr-87/Sr-86 isotope ratio than surrounding cataclasites, breccias, and gouges, which have similar major element compositions. Model analysis reveals that the trace element composition of the black gouge is consistent with high-temperature (up to 250A degrees C) coseismic fluid-rock interactions. Thermal and kinetic constraints indicate that there have been repeated slips on the fault at moderate depths (e.g., 600 m), although the tectonic process by which the fault zone has been uplifted and exposed in this area is not well understood.

    DOI: 10.1186/1880-5981-66-36

  • Estimation of slip parameters associated with frictional heating during the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake by vitrinite reflectance geothermometry 査読

    Yuka Maekawa, Tetsuro Hirono, Hikaru Yabuta, Hideki Mukoyoshi, Manami Kitamura, Minoru Ikehara, Wataru Tanikawa, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa

    EARTH PLANETS AND SPACE   66   2014年05月( ISSN:1880-5981

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    To estimate the slip parameters and understand the fault lubrication mechanism during the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake, we applied vitrinite reflectance geothermometry to samples retrieved from the Chelungpu fault. We found a marked reflectance anomaly of 1.30%+/- 0.21% in the primary slip zone of the earthquake, whereas the reflectances in the surrounding deformed and host rocks were 0.45% to 0.77%. By applying a kinetic model of vitrinite thermal maturation together with a one-dimensional heat and thermal diffusion equation, we determined the shear stress and peak temperature in the slip zone during the earthquake to be 1.00 +/- 0.04 MPa and 626 degrees C +/- 25 degrees C, respectively. Taking into account the probable overestimation of the temperature owing to a mechanochemically enhanced reaction or flash heating at grain contacts, this temperature should be considered an upper limit. The lower limit was previously constrained to 400 degrees C by studies of fluid-mobile trace-element concentrations and magnetic minerals. Therefore, we inferred that the peak temperature during the Chi-Chi earthquake was 400 degrees C to 626 degrees C, corresponding to an apparent friction coefficient of 0.01 to 0.06. Such low friction and the previous evidence of a high-temperature fluid suggest that thermal pressurization likely contributed to dynamic weakening during the Chi-Chi earthquake.

    DOI: 10.1186/1880-5981-66-28

  • Importance of mechanochemical effects on fault slip behavior during earthquakes 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Wataru Tanikawa, Go Honda, Jun Kameda, Jun-ichi Fukuda, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   40 ( 12 )   2988 - 2992   2013年06月( ISSN:0094-8276

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Recent analyses of natural faults and laboratory rock friction experiments have revealed that physical transformations and chemical reactions of minerals and fluids occur in faults during earthquakes. However, exactly how these physicochemical processes affect fault weakening and earthquake energetics is not well understood. We present quantitative experimental evidence of mechanochemical changes in a clay mineral (illite) during frictional slip and evaluate the effect of those changes on slip behavior. Friction distorts the crystal structure of illite and dramatically decreases the activation energy (E-a) of the dehydroxylation reaction. Numerical modeling shows that the lower E-a allows the dehydroxylation to occur at relatively low temperatures (200-300 degrees C), which in turn drastically reduces fault strength by pressurization of released water from the mineral. Thus, dynamic thermo-chemo-mechanical processes can strongly affect earthquake instability, especially along clay-rich faults such as those in the shallow part of subduction zone plate boundaries.

    DOI: 10.1002/grl.50609

  • 断層掘削研究によって明らかになった地震時の断層滑り挙動とその物理化学的側面 査読

    廣野哲朗, 小村健太朗, 藤本光一郎, 伊藤久男, モリ ジェームズジロウ, 佐藤比呂志

    122 ( 2 )   323 - 342   2013年04月( ISSN:0022-135X

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.5026/jgeography.122.323

    CiNii Article

    J-GLOBAL

  • 断層岩の微量元素組成・同位体組成からみた地震時の流体岩石相互作用 査読

    石川剛志, 廣野哲朗

    地球化学   46 ( 4 )   217 - 230   2012年( ISSN:0386-4073

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    In this paper, we review recent progress on an attempt at evaluating coseismic fluid-rock interactions in fault zones on the basis of trace element and isotope analyses of fault rocks. The slip zone rocks from Taiwan Chelungpu fault at 1 km depth exhibit marked decreases of lithium, rubidium, cesium and <sup>87</sup>Sr/<sup>86</sup>Sr and an increase of strontium relative to adjacent host sedimentary rocks. Model calculations reveal that these trace element and isotope spectra were produced by coseismic fluid-rock interactions at >350℃, which may have caused a dynamic decrease of friction along the fault through thermal pressurization. The slip zone rocks from a major reverse fault in the Boso Emi accretionary complex at 1-2 km depth also show similar evidence for coseismic fluid-rock interactions at high temperatures. For the slip zone rocks from the Shimanto accretionary complex in Kure area, which represent rocks of ancient megaspray fault at 2.5-5.5 km depth, the signals derived from high-temperature fluids overlap with those from melting, indicating coseismic fluid-rock interactions followed by frictional melting. These results demonstrate that high-temperature fluid-rock interactions widely occur during seismic slip and geochemical characteristics of the fault rocks are useful indicators of such coseismic events.

    DOI: 10.14934/chikyukagaku.46.217

    CiNii Article

  • Implications of the thermal properties and kinetic parameters of dehydroxylation of mica minerals for fault weakening, frictional heating, and earthquake energetics 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Wataru Tanikawa

    EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS   307 ( 1-2 )   161 - 172   2011年07月( ISSN:0012-821X

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Transient frictional heating during earthquake slip induces dehydroxylation of phyllosilicate minerals. As this reaction is endothermic and releases H2O, it affects dynamic fault weakening and the energetics of earthquakes. To quantitatively evaluate this effect, accurate determination of both the kinetic parameters of the reaction and the thermal properties of the minerals is needed. We chose an illite-muscovite sample as representative of the phyllosilicates found in active crustal faults. For this sample, we measured the specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity, investigated their temperature dependencies, and determined the weight loss and enthalpy of the dehydroxylation reaction to be 5.22 wt.% and 0.2895 kJ g(-1), respectively. We applied Friedman analysis to the weight loss data from heating experiments and found that the dehydroxylation reactions were well fitted by two-step reactions of an n-dimensional nucleation mechanism according to the Avrami-Erofeev equation with n = 0.5 (first step) and two-dimensional diffusion (second step). On the basis of these experimental results, we performed numerical analyses of dynamic fault weakening, which demonstrated that the fluids released by dehydroxylation contribute to pressurization of pore fluids inducing a decrease in effective normal stress on faults, and that the dehydroxylation reaction absorbs heat from the energy released. We also performed a sensitivity analysis on the kinetic function and parameters and the thermal properties, which showed that the contribution of these to fault weakening is considerably smaller than those of frictional coefficient and slip-zone thickness. (c) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.04.042

  • Geochemical signals for determining the slip-weakening mechanism of an ancient megasplay fault in the Shimanto accretionary complex 査読

    Go Honda, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa, Tetsuro Hirono, Hideki Mukoyoshi

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   38   2011年03月( ISSN:0094-8276

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    To investigate the slip behavior of a megasplay fault branching from a subduction boundary megathrust, we investigated the geochemistry of an out-of-sequence thrust that formed at 2.5-5.5 km depth. Rocks from the slip zone show major-element and fluid-immobile trace-element compositions that are consistent with disequilibrium flash melting. Distinct depletions of Li, Rb, and Cs in the slip-zone rocks indicate fluid-rock interactions at high temperatures (&gt;350 degrees C). These findings suggest a slip process in which high-temperature pore fluids were generated by frictional slip, but the thermally-enhanced pressure might not have reached a sufficient level to cause thermal pressurization, and the temperature continued to increase to attain melting of mica minerals. Comparison with slip zone that formed at a shallower depth (1-2 km), where only thermal pressurization occurred, suggests a transition from melt lubrication at depth to thermal pressurization at shallower depths along a megasplay faults. Citation: Honda, G., T. Ishikawa, T. Hirono, and H. Mukoyoshi (2011), Geochemical signals for determining the slip-weakening mechanism of an ancient megasplay fault in the Shimanto accretionary complex, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L06310, doi:10.1029/2011GL046722.

    DOI: 10.1029/2011GL046722

  • Coseismic frictional heating and fluid–rock interaction in a slip zone within a shallow accretionary prism and implications for earthquake slip behavior 査読

    Yohei Hamada, Tetsuro Hirono, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa

    Journal of Geophysical Research   116   2011年01月( ISSN:2169-9313

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1029/2010JB007730

  • Specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity and their temperature dependencies in a rock sample from adjacent to the Taiwan Chelungpu fault 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Yohei Hamada

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH   115   2010年05月( ISSN:0148-0227

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Determination of the specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity of rock samples, together with their temperature dependencies, is crucial for estimation of frictional heating during an earthquake. We measure these properties of a rock sample taken adjacent to the Taiwan Chelungpu fault, which slipped during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, by differential scanning calorimetry and by using a laser-flash apparatus. We also evaluate the temperature dependencies of these properties up to 1000 degrees C and 800 degrees C, respectively, and determine their fitting equations. The specific heat capacity of the sample peaks at around 565 degrees C, and the thermal diffusivity decreases with increasing temperature to 600 degrees C but is almost constant in the temperature range of 600 degrees C-800 degrees C. These changes at around 550 degrees C-600 degrees C probably result from the alpha-beta phase transition of quartz, of which the sample is dominantly composed. We then perform a numerical analysis, adopting these values of specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity along with their temperature dependencies, to reestimate dynamic shear stress and earthquake energetics during the Chi-Chi earthquake. In this way, we determine the residual shear stress after the stress drop to be 9.0 MPa and the energy taken up by coseismic chemical reactions to be 10.4 MJ m(-2), corresponding to 12.1% of the given work on the fault and tending to counteract the frictional heating.

    DOI: 10.1029/2009JB006816

  • Localized rotation of principal stress around faults and fractures determined from borehole breakouts in hole B of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) 査読

    Weiren Lin, En-Chao Yeh, Jih-Hao Hung, Bezalel Haimson, Tetsuro Hirono

    TECTONOPHYSICS   482 ( 1-4 )   82 - 91   2010年02月( ISSN:0040-1951

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    To reveal details of stress perturbations associated with faults and fractures, we investigated the faults and large fractures accompanied by stress-induced borehole breakouts or drilling-induced tensile fractures in hole B of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP). Then, we determined the relationship between the faults and fractures and stress orientation changes. We identified faults and fractures from electrical images of the borehole wall obtained by downhole logging but also from photographs and descriptions of retrieved core samples, and measured the variations in the principal horizontal stress orientation ascertained from borehole breakouts observed on the electrical images in the vicinity of the faults and fractures. Identification of geological structures (faults, fractures, and lithologic boundaries) by electrical images only is difficult and may sometimes yield incorrect results. In a novel approach, therefore, we used both the electrical images and core photographs to identify geological structures. We found four patterns of stress orientation change, or no change, in the vicinity of faults and fractures in TCDP hole B: (i) abrupt (discontinuous) rotation in the vicinity of faults or fractures; (ii) gradual rotation; (iii) suppression of breakouts at faults, fractures, or lithologic boundaries: and (iv) no change in the stress orientation. We recognized stress fluctuations, that is, heterogeneous mesoscale (&gt;= 10 cm) stress distributions with respect to both stress orientation and magnitude. In addition, we found that stress state changes occurred frequently in the vicinity of faults, fractures, and lithologic boundaries. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2009.06.020

  • Estimation of temperature rise in a shallow slip zone of the megasplay fault in the Nankai Trough 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Kohtaro Ujiie, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa, Toshiaki Mishima, Yohei Hamada, Masaharu Tanimizu, Wonn Soh, Masataka Kinoshita

    TECTONOPHYSICS   478 ( 3-4 )   215 - 220   2009年12月( ISSN:0040-1951

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    A megasplay fault branching from the subduction boundary megathrust in the Nankai Trough is thought to have caused large tsunamis associated with past Tonankai earthquakes. Because the temperature recorded in the fault can constrain parameters of seismic slip, we evaluated several temperature proxies (fluid-mobile trace element concentrations, Sr isotopes, magnetic minerals, inorganic carbon content, and Raman spectra of carbonaceous material) in material from a localized slip zone, sampled at Site C0004 by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 316. Our results showed that the shallow part of the megasplay fault has not experienced temperatures above 300 degrees C. We also found that in addition to shear stress and slip distance, slip rate and porosity are effective parameters for frictional heat, as demonstrated by numerical analysis incorporating thermal diffusion. The slip rate estimated through these proxies may indicate that the fault did not slip with high velocity near the seafloor. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2009.08.001

  • Changes to magnetic minerals caused by frictional heating during the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake 査読

    Toshiaki Mishima, Tetsuro Hirono, Norihiro Nakamura, Wataru Tanikawa, Wonn Soh, Sheng-Rong Song

    Earth, Planets and Space   61 ( 6 )   797 - 801   2009年06月( ISSN:1343-8832

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    担当区分:責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Abstract

    We carried out magnetic mineral analyses of samples from the shallowest major fault zone within the Chelungpu fault system, which is the zone that previous researchers believe slipped during the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake. Our aim was to gain an understanding of the changes to magnetic minerals during the earthquake. Magnetic hysteresis and low-temperature thermal demagnetization measurements showed that high magnetic susceptibilities in the black gouge zone within the major fault zone could be attributed not to fining of ferrimagnetic minerals but, rather, to their abundance. Thermomagnetic analyses indicated that the strata in and around the fault zone originally contained thermally unstable iron-bearing paramagnetic minerals, such as pyrite, siderite, and chlorite. We therefore concluded that frictional heating (&gt;400°C) occurred in the black gouge zone in the major fault zone during the slip of the Chi-Chi earthquake and that the resultant high temperature induced thermal decomposition of paramagnetic minerals to form magnetite, resulting in the observed high magnetic susceptibilities.

    DOI: 10.1186/bf03353185

    その他URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/BF03353185/fulltext.html

  • Effect of density-driven flow on the through-diffusion experiment 査読

    Yusuke Kirino, Tadashi Yokoyama, Tetsuro Hirono, Takashi Nakajima, Satoru Nakashima

    JOURNAL OF CONTAMINANT HYDROLOGY   106 ( 3-4 )   166 - 172   2009年05月( ISSN:0169-7722

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Diffusion is one of the main mechanisms of solute transport in pore water of geologic media. The effective diffusion coefficient of a solute in a rock is usually measured by the through-diffusion experiment. However, in this experiment, the effect of advection, induced by density difference between dense aqueous solution and pure water, has not been considered. To evaluate the effect of density-driven flow, a through-diffusion experiment using Fontainebleau sandstone was conducted for KCl and KI aqueous solutions with various densities. The measured effective diffusion coefficients were positively correlated with the density difference; the effective diffusion coefficient of a 1 M KI solution (density difference, 0.119 g/cm(3)) was one order of magnitude larger than that of a 0.1 M KCl solution (density difference, 0.005 g/cm(3)). The result is explained by a theoretical model using a diffusion-advection equation including Darcy&apos;s law. Based on the theory, a diagram to evaluate the condition at which the measured effective diffusion coefficient does not include the effect of advection is presented. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2009.02.006

  • Transport properties and dynamic processes in a fault zone from samples recovered from TCDP Hole B of the Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project 査読

    Wataru Tanikawa, Masumi Sakaguchi, Tetsuro Hirono, Weiren Lin, Wonn Soh, Sheng-Rong Song

    GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS   10   2009年04月( ISSN:1525-2027

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    We measured transport properties at a confining pressure of 60 MPa in core samples from the fault zone in Hole B of the Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project (TCDP). Permeability and specific storage of the fault gouge range from 3 x 10(-15) to 1 x 10(-17) m(2) and from 2 x 10(-10) to 7 x 10(-10) Pa-1, respectively, and the measured hydraulic diffusivity was 6 x 10(-5) m2/s, which is consistent with the data measured in situ. Numerical analysis of the thermal pressurization mechanism during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake using laboratory measured transport and frictional properties showed that pore pressure at the fault zone increased dramatically during slip, whereas temperature increased only moderately to 400 degrees C at the end of slip. The results indicate that dehydration of interlayer water in smectite is plausibly caused by frictional heating, although such dehydration does not influence fault weakening. The decomposition reactions of other minerals are difficult to explain for only one slip event. A magnetic susceptibility anomaly observed in the fault zone is consistent with the modeling results, although low contents of inorganic carbon and clay minerals are not. We concluded that these inconsistencies can possibly be explained by the combined effects of enhancement of chemical reactions by mechanochemical influences and periodic movement on the Chelungpu fault. High-temperature water-rock interactions are also a possible explanation for inconsistencies.

    DOI: 10.1029/2008GC002269

  • Estimated dynamic shear stress and frictional heat during the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake: A chemical kinetics approach with isothermal heating experiments 査読

    Yohei Hamada, Tetsuro Hirono, Minoru Ikehara, Wonn Soh, Sheng-Rong Song

    TECTONOPHYSICS   469 ( 1-4 )   73 - 84   2009年04月( ISSN:0040-1951

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    We performed isothermal heating experiments on samples from a breccia zone adjacent to the slip zone of the Taiwan Chelungpu fault that slipped during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake to determine the chemical kinetics function and parameters for thermal decomposition of carbonate minerals in the fault zone. We found that a zero-order reaction was the most likely reaction mechanism for thermal decomposition of these samples and determined an activation energy for the reaction of 137 kJ mol(-1) and a pre-exponential term of 1.15 x 10(4) s(-1). We applied these parameters in chemical kinetics calculations, taking into account the temperature change over time caused by frictional heating and heat conduction, energy conservation, and energy taken up by the endothermic reaction, to estimate the dynamic shear stress and maximum temperature reached in the slip zone, and found them to be 6.62 MPa and 1079 degrees C, respectively. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2009.01.036

  • Analyses of pseudotachylyte from Hole-B of Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project (TCDP); their implications for seismic slip behaviors during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake 査読

    Kenshiro Otsuki, Tetsuro Hirono, Masahiro Omori, Masumi Sakaguchi, Wataru Tanigawa, Weiren Lin, Wonn Soh, Sheng-Song Rong

    TECTONOPHYSICS   469 ( 1-4 )   13 - 24   2009年04月( ISSN:0040-1951

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    The seismic slip behavior during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake (M-w 7.6) was contrastive between the northern and southern segments of the activated Chelungpu fault; large, fast and smooth slips with large stress drop in the north, while smaller, slower and irregular slips with smaller stress drop in the south. We analyzed the pseudotachylyte samples recovered from 1194 m, 1243 m and 1314 m depths of Hole-B of Taiwan Chelungpu fault Drilling Project (TCDP) to reveal the spatial difference in friction mechanism. All pseudotachylyte layers are thin (0.7-2.8 cm), the volume fraction of protoliths is very large (more than 63%), and the estimated temperature distribution is very heterogeneous from ca. 750-1750 degrees C. These observations suggest that these pseudotachylyte melts were in the partial melting regime of Montgomery [Montgomery, R.S., 1976. Friction and wear at high sliding speeds. Wear 36, 275-298] where friction coefficient is abnormally large. Similar pseudotachylyte was found already in the core sample from 175 m depth of the Nanto borehole penetrating the southern fault. Since both pseudotachylyte samples from the two boreholes are older than the 1999 Chi-Chi event and have been uplifted from depths farther down-dip of their current locations, it is likely that recent seismic ruptures also would have encountered these mechanical barriers of viscous melt patches at deeper parts in the north than in the south. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication of clayey gouge worked effectively at the shallower parts of the northern segment, however there is no evidence that it played an important role in the south. These differences are the plausible causes of the contrastive local slip behaviors during the Chi-Chi earthquake. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2009.01.008

  • Energy taken up by co-seismic chemical reactions during a large earthquake: An example from the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake 査読

    Yohei Hamada, Tetsuro Hirono, Wataru Tanikawa, Wonn Soh, Sheng-Rong Song

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   36   2009年03月( ISSN:0094-8276

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Frictional heat in a fault zone during earthquake slip transiently induces chemical reactions that may use energy released during the earthquake. We estimated the energy used by such reactions (EC) by a numerical analysis incorporating frictional heat, thermal diffusion, chemical kinetics, and energy conservation, and found that EC has an auto-feedback effect that inhibits temperature rise in fault zone. During the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake, estimated EC was 0.43 MJ/m(2), corresponding to 0.79% of the frictional heat generated. This low percentage probably reflects the low initial concentrations of reactive materials. However, in the case of a fault with abundant reactive materials, EC could reach > 50% of the frictional heat and the auto-feedback effect could be large. At this case EC is a nonnegligible component on earthquake energy budget and can affect fault mechanics. Citation: Hamada, Y., T. Hirono, W. Tanikawa, W. Soh, and S.-R. Song (2009), Energy taken up by co-seismic chemical reactions during a large earthquake: An example from the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L06301, doi: 10.1029/2008GL036772.

    DOI: 10.1029/2008GL036772

  • Style of fluid flow and deformation in and around an ancient out-of-sequence thrust: An example from the Nobeoka Tectonic Line in the Shimanto accretionary complex, SW Japan 査読

    Hideki Mukoyoshi, Arito Sakaguchi, Kenshiro Otsuki, Tetsuro Hirono, Wonn Soh

    The Island Arc   2009年

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1738.2009.00670.x

  • Coseismic fluid-rock interactions at high temperatures in the Chelungpu fault 査読

    Tsuyoshi Ishikawa, Masaharu Tanimizu, Kazuya Nagaishi, Jun Matsuoka, Osamu Tadai, Masumi Sakaguchi, Tetsuro Hirono, Toshiaki Mishima, Wataru Tanikawa, Weiren Lin, Hiroyuki Kikuta, Wonn Soh, Sheng-Rong Song

    NATURE GEOSCIENCE   1 ( 10 )   679 - 683   2008年10月( ISSN:1752-0894

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Aqueous fluids are thought to have an essential role in faulting and the dynamic propagation of earthquake rupture. Fluid overpressure can affect earthquake nucleation(1,2) and in a process termed thermal pressurization, pore fluid pressure produced by frictional heating can reduce the effective normal stress acting on the fault surface(3-5). This may lead to a marked reduction in fault strength during slip. However, the coseismic presence of fluids within slip zones and the role of fluids in dynamic fault weakening is still a matter of debate. Here we present compositions of major and trace elements as well as isotope ratios of core samples representing relatively undamaged as well as very fine-grained deformed material from three active zones of the Chelungpu fault, Taiwan. Depth profiles across the most intensely sheared bands that range in thickness from 2-15 cm exhibit sharp compositional peaks of fluid-mobile elements and of strontium isotopes. We suggest that high-temperature fluids (&gt;350 degrees C) derived from heating of sediment pore fluids during the earthquake interacted with material within the fault zone and mobilized the elements. The coseismic presence of high-temperature fluids under conditions of low hydraulic diffusivity(6) within the fault zone is favourable for thermal pressurization. This effect may have caused a dynamic decrease of friction along the Chelungpu fault during the 1999 magnitude 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake.

    DOI: 10.1038/ngeo308

  • Clay mineral reactions caused by frictional heating during an earthquake: An example from the Taiwan Chelungpu fault 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Koichiro Fujimoto, Tadashi Yokoyama, Yohei Hamada, Wataru Tanikawa, Osamu Tadai, Toshiaki Mishima, Masaharu Tanimizu, Weiren Lin, Wonn Soh, Sheng-Rong Song

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   35 ( 16 )   2008年08月( ISSN:0094-8276

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    To understand the chemical reactions of clay minerals in a fault zone during an earthquake, we analyzed the clay minerals in the Chelungpu fault, which slipped during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy showed that kaolinite and smectite contents were lower in the black gouge zone than in the surrounding gray gouge, breccia, or fracture-damaged zones. We applied a chemical kinetics approach to examine whether dehydroxylation of kaolinite and dehydration of interlayer water, dehydroxylation, and illitization of smectite occurred during coseismic frictional heating, and found that the first two reactions could complete under the temperature-time profile of the Chi-Chi earthquake, reconstructed by a previous study. Because dehydration of smectite interlayer water and dehydroxylation of kaolinite would have completed 3.6 and 8.2 s after the beginning of slip, the resulting release of water might have affected the frictional mechanism during the earthquake.

    DOI: 10.1029/2008GL034476

  • Frictional behavior and its seismological implications within thrusts in the shallow portion of an accretionary prism 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Hideki Mukoyoshi, Wataru Tanikawa, Hiroyuki Noda, Kazuo Mizoguchi, Toshihiko Shimamoto

    TECTONOPHYSICS   456 ( 3-4 )   163 - 170   2008年08月( ISSN:0040-1951

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    The Emi Group in the Boso accretionary complex is reported to have experienced a relatively shallow burial depth, approximately 1-4 km below the sea floor at low temperature (50-75 degrees C), indicating that the group passed through or around the upper portion of the seismogenic zone. Two representative thrusts in the group were recognized as products of deformations in the setting. Frictional experiments using the powder samples from the fault zones showed the frictional behavior of velocity hardening under the wet condition with 20 MPa and 40 MPa normal stresses. Microstructures within the thrusts exhibited pervasive deformation with composite planer fabrics. This results that the shallow portion of the thrust at the base of the accretionary prism is aseismic with stable sliding. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2008.04.015

  • High magnetic susceptibility produced by thermal decomposition of core samples from the Chelungpu fault in Taiwan 査読

    Wataru Tanikawa, Toshiaki Mishima, Tetsuro Hirono, Wonn Soh, Sheng-Rong Song

    EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS   272 ( 1-2 )   372 - 381   2008年07月( ISSN:0012-821X

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    We carried out thermomagnetic susceptibility analyses of fault rocks from core samples from Hole B of the Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project (TCDP) to investigate the cause of high magnetic susceptibilities in the fault core. Test samples were thermally and mechanically treated by heating to different maximum temperatures of up to 900 degrees C and by high-velocity frictional tests before magnetic analyses. Thermomagnetic susceptibility analyses of natural fault rocks revealed that magnetization increased at maximum heating temperatures above 400 degrees C in the heating cycle, and showed three step increases, at 600 to 550 degrees C and at 300 degrees C during the cooling cycle. These behaviors are consistent with the presence of pyrite, siderite and chlorite, suggesting that TCDP gouge originally included these minerals, which contributed to the generation the magnetic susceptibility by thermomechanical reactions. The change in magnetic Susceptibility due to heating of siderite was 20 times that obtained by heating pyrite and chlorite, so that only a small fraction of siderite decomposition is enough to cause the slight increase of the susceptibility observed in the fault core. Color measurement results indicate that thermal decomposition by frictional heating took place under low-oxygen conditions at depth, which prevented the minerals from oxidizing to reddish hematite. This finding supports the inference that a mechanically driven chemical reaction partly accounts for the high magnetic susceptibility. A kinetic model analysis confirmed that frictional heating can cause thermal decomposition of siderite and pyrite. Our results show that decomposition of pyrite to pyrrhotite, siderite and, to some extent, chlorite to magnetite is the probable mechanism explaining the magnetic anomaly within the Chelungpu fault zone. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.05.002

  • Measurements of ionic diffusivity in various rock samples: Low diffusivity through nanoscale pores 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Satoru Nakashima, Christopher J. Spiers

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ROCK MECHANICS AND MINING SCIENCES   45 ( 3 )   450 - 459   2008年03月( ISSN:1365-1609

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2007.07.008

  • Characterization of slip zone associated with the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake: X-ray CT image analyses and microstructural observations of the Taiwan Chelungpu fault 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Masumi Sakaguchi, Kenshiro Otsuki, Hiroki Sone, Koichiro Fujimoto, Toshiaki Mishima, Weiren Lin, Wataru Tanikawa, Masaharu Tanimizu, Wonn Soh, En-Chao Yeh, Sheng-Rong Song

    TECTONOPHYSICS   449 ( 1-4 )   63 - 84   2008年03月( ISSN:0040-1951

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    To characterize the fault-related rocks within the Chelungpu fault, we performed X-ray computed tomography (CT) image analyses and microstructural observations of Hole B core samples from the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project. We identified the slip zone associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, within the black gouge zone in the shallowest major fault zone, by comparison with previous reports. The slip zone was characterized by low CT number, cataclastic (or ultracataclastic) texture, and high possibility to have experienced a mechanically fluidized state. Taking these characteristics and previous reports of frictional heating in the slip zone into consideration, we suggested that thermal pressurization was the most likely dynamic weakening mechanism during the earthquake. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2007.12.002

  • Erratum: "A chemical kinetic approach to estimate dynamic shear stress during the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake" (Geophysics Research Letters (2008) vol. 34 10.1029/2007GL030743)

    Tetsuro Hirono, Tadashi Yokoyama, Yohei Hamada, Wataru Tanikawa, Toshiaki Mishima, Minoru Ikehara, Vincent Famin, Masaharu Tanimizu, Weiren Lin, Wonn Soh, Sheng Rong Song

    Geophysical Research Letters   35 ( 2 )   2008年01月( ISSN:0094-8276

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1029/2007GL032512

  • Profiles of volumetric water content in fault zones retrieved from hole B of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) 査読

    Weiren Lin, Osamu Matsubayashi, En-Chao Yeh, Tetsuro Hirono, Wataru Tanikawa, Wonn Soh, Chien-Ying Wang, Sheng-Rong Song, Masafumi Murayama

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   35 ( 1 )   2008年01月( ISSN:0094-8276

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    To determine the distribution pattern of water content in the three major fault zones penetrated by the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) hole B, and to assess a rapid, nondestructive water content measurement technique, time domain reflectometry (TDR), we determined the volumetric water content of sequential core samples and found that water content increased toward the center of each of the three fault zones, except in the disk-shaped black material. We observed distinct anomalies in the water content and resistivity profiles, particularly in the shallowest major fault zone (FZB1136), supporting the hypothesis that FZB1136 ruptured during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. This study, the first successful application of the TDR technique to determine water content of core samples, including fault zone samples, collected by an active-fault drilling project, showed that this technique is suitable for measuring water content of fault core samples.

    DOI: 10.1029/2007GL032158

  • Earthquakes produce carbon dioxide in crustal faults 査読

    Vincent Famin, Satoru Nakashima, Anne-Marie Boullier, Koichiro Fujimoto, Tetsuro Hirono

    EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS   265 ( 3-4 )   487 - 497   2008年01月( ISSN:0012-821X

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microanalysis of pseudotachylytes (i.e. friction-induced melts produced by seismic slip) from the Nojima fault (Japan) reveals that earthquakes almost instantaneously expel 99 wt.% of the wall rock CO2 content. Carbon is exsolved because it is supersaturated in the friction melts. By extrapolation to a crustal-scale fault rupture, large events such as the M7.2 Kobe earthquake (1995) may yield a total production of 1.8 to 3.4 x 10(3) tons CO2 within a few seconds. This extraordinary release of CO2 can cause a flash fluid pressure increase in the fault plane, and therefore enhance earthquake slip or trigger aftershocks; it may also explain the anomalous discharge of carbon monitored in nearby fault springs after large earthquakes. Because carbon saturation in silicate melts is pressure-dependent, FTIR can be used as a new tool to constrain the maximum depth of pseudotachylyte formation in exhumed faults. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All fights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.10.041

  • Characteristics of chlorites in seismogenic fault zones: the Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project (TCDP) core sample 査読

    Hashimoto, Y, Tadai, O, Tanimizu, M, Tanikawa, W, Hirono, T, Lin, W, Mishima, T, Sakaguchi, M, Soh, W, Song, S, Aoike, K, Ishikawa, T, Murayama, M, Fujimoto, K, Fukuchi, T, Ikehara, M, Ito, H, Kikuta, H, Kinoshita, M, Masuda, K, Matsubara, T, Matsubayashi, O, Mizoguchi, K, Nakamura, N, Otsuki, K, Shimamoto, T, Sone, H, Takahashi, M

    eEarth   2008年

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.5194/eed-2-85-2007

  • A chemical kinetic approach to estimate dynamic shear stress during the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Tadashi Yokoyama, Yohei Hamada, Wataru Tanikawa, Toshiaki Mishima, Minoru Ikehara, Vincent Famin, Masaharu Tanimizu, Weiren Lin, Wonn Soh, Sheng-Rong Song

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   34 ( 19 )   2007年10月( ISSN:0094-8276

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    [1] Estimation of the dynamic shear stress on a fault during an earthquake is important for understanding the earthquake itself. Using a chemical kinetic approach, we examined the thermal decomposition of carbonate minerals to estimate the shear stress on the Taiwan Chelungpu fault, which slipped during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The reaction rate of the decomposition was related to temperature by using the Arrhenius equation, and the chemical kinetics, taking into account the temperature change over time caused by frictional heating and heat conduction, was solved by the finite difference method. The dynamic shear stress during the Chi-Chi earthquake was deduced to be 1.31 MPa, and the frictional coefficient to be 0.04-0.05. This estimated value agrees with the hypothesis that friction along the Chelungpu fault was low.

    DOI: 10.1029/2007GL030743

  • Current stress state and principal stress rotations in the vicinity of the Chelungpu fault induced by the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake 査読

    Weiren Lin, En-Chao Yeh, Hisao Ito, Jih-Hao Hung, Tetsuro Hirono, Wonn Soh, Kuo-Fong Ma, Masataka Kinoshita, Chien-Ying Wang, Sheng-Rong Song

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   34 ( 16 )   2007年08月( ISSN:0094-8276

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    We carried out various stress measurements in boreholes penetrating the northern segment of the Chelungpu fault, drilled about 5 years after the 1999 ChiChi, Taiwan, earthquake. In the possible depth range of the Chelungpu fault, three major fault zones were encountered. Clearly recognizable principal stress rotations in the vicinity of the shallowest major fault zone, at 1133 m depth in hole B, suggest that this fault zone ruptured during the 1999 earthquake. Moreover, the fault's rupturing altered the stress state in the area surrounding this fault zone. In this paper, we constrain the possible magnitudes of the current principal horizontal stresses around the fault zone and show that the current stress state belongs to a normal or strike-slip fault regime. Therefore, the stress state was changed from that of a reverse fault regime by the rupturing.

    DOI: 10.1029/2007GL030515

  • High magnetic susceptibility produced in high-velocity frictional tests on core samples from the Chelungpu fault in Taiwan 査読

    Wataru Tanikawa, Toshiaki Mishima, Tetsuro Hirono, Weiren Lin, Toshihiko Shimamoto, Wonn Soh, Sheng-Rong Song

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   34 ( 15 )   2007年08月( ISSN:0094-8276

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    We carried out high-velocity frictional tests on crushed fault gouge from core samples from Hole B of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project to investigate the cause of high magnetic susceptibilities in the fault core. Black ultracataclasite resembling that observed in Hole B formed during the experiments, even under low axial stress of 0.5 to 1.5 MPa. The bulk magnetic susceptibility of the tested samples was proportional to the frictional work applied and increased as slip increased. Thermomagnetic analysis of the samples before frictional testing revealed that magnetization increased at temperatures above 400 degrees C, probably because of thermal decomposition of paramagnetic minerals. Both the thermally and mechanically induced formation of ferrimagnetic minerals by high-velocity friction might have caused a magnetic susceptibility anomaly. Our experimental results support the assumption that heat generation of short duration, even if it is below the melting point, can increase magnetic susceptibility.

    DOI: 10.1029/2007GL030783

  • Nondestructive continuous physical property measurements of core samples recovered from hole B, Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, En-Chao Yeh, Weiren Lin, Hiroki Sone, Toshiaki Mishima, Wonn Soh, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Osamu Matsubayashi, Kan Aoike, Hisao Ito, Masataka Kinoshita, Masafumi Murayama, Sheng-Rong Song, Kuo-Fong Ma, Jih-Hao Hung, Chien-Ying Wang, Yi-Ben Tsai, Tomomi Kondo, Masahiro Nishimura, Soichi Moriya, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Toru Fujiki, Lena Maeda, Hiroaki Muraki, Toshikatsu Kuramoto, Kazuhiro Sugiyama, Toshikatsu Sugawara

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH   112 ( B7 )   2007年07月( ISSN:0148-0227

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    [1] The Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project was undertaken in 2002 to investigate the faulting mechanism of the 1999 M-w 7.6 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake. Hole B penetrated the Chelungpu fault, and core samples were recovered from between 948.42- and 1352.60-m depth. Three major zones, designated FZB1136 (fault zone at 1136-m depth in hole B), FZB1194, and FZB1243, were recognized in the core samples as active fault zones within the Chelungpu fault. Nondestructive continuous physical property measurements, conducted on all core samples, revealed that the three major fault zones were characterized by low gamma ray attenuation (GRA) densities and high magnetic susceptibilities. Extensive fracturing and cracks within the fault zones and/or loss of atoms with high atomic number, but not a measurement artifact, might have caused the low GRA densities, whereas the high magnetic susceptibility values might have resulted from the formation of magnetic minerals from paramagnetic minerals by frictional heating. Minor fault zones were characterized by low GRA densities and no change in magnetic susceptibility, and the latter may indicate that these minor zones experienced relatively low frictional heating. Magnetic susceptibility in a fault zone may be key to the determination that frictional heating occurred during an earthquake on the fault.

    DOI: 10.1029/2006JB004738

  • Core description and characteristics of fault zones from Hole-A of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project 査読

    En-Chao Yeh, Hiroki Sone, Taichi Nakaya, Ka-Hao Ian, Sheng-Rong Song, Jih-Hao Hung, Weiren Lin, Tetsuro Hirono, Chien-Ying Wang, Kuo-Fong Ma, Wonn Soh, Masataka Kinoshita

    TERRESTRIAL ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCES   18 ( 2 )   327 - 357   2007年06月( ISSN:1017-0839

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project was conducted in drill site Dakeng, Taichung City of central western Taiwan during 2004 - 2005 principally to investigate the rupture mechanism in the northern segment of the Chi-Chi earthquake of 21 September 1999, and also to examine regional stratigraphy and tectonics. Core examination (500 - 1800 m) of Hole-A gave profound results aiding in illustrating the lithologic column, deformation structure, and architectural pattern of fault zones along the borehole.
    Lithology column of Hole-A was identified downward as the Cholan Formation (500 - 1027 m), Chinshui Shale (1027 - 1268 m), Kueichulin Formation (1268 - 1712 m), and back to the Cholan Formation (1712 - 2003 m) again. A dramatic change is observed regarding sedimentation age and deformation structure around 1712 m. Along the core, most bedding dips 30 degrees toward N105 degrees. Around 1785 m, bedding dip jumps up to 70 degrees until the bottom of borehole. Five structure groups of different orientations (dip direction/dip) are observed throughout the core. Based on the orientation and sense of shear, they are categorized as thrust (105/30), left-lateral fault (015/30 - 80), right-lateral fault (195/30 - 80), normal fault (105/5 - 10), and backthrust (285/40 - 50). Ten fault zones have been recognized between 500 and 2003 m. We interpret the fault zone located at around 1111 m as being the most likely candidate for rupture deformation during Chi-Chi earthquake. The fault zone seated around 1712 m is recognized as the Sanyi fault zone which is 600 m beneath the Chelungpu fault zone. Ten fault zones including thrust faults, strike-slip faults and backthrust are classified as the Chelungpu Fault System (&lt; 1250 m) and the Sanyi Fault System (&gt; 1500 m). According to the deformation textures within fault zones, the fault zones can be categorized as three types of deformation: distinct fracture deformation, clayey-gouge deformation, and soft-rock deformation. Fracture deformation is dominant within the Chelungpu Fault System and abother two architectures prevail in the Sanyi Fault System. The fracture deformation pattern is asymmetric, which depended the shear sense of fault zone. From the core examination of TCDP Hole-A, the lithology plays an important role in controlling the location and deformation of fault zones.

    DOI: 10.3319/TAO.2007.18.2.327

  • Preliminary results of stress measurement using drill cores of TCDP Hole-A: an application of anelastic strain recovery method to three-dimensional in-situ stress determination 査読

    Weiren Lin, En-Chao Yeh, Hisao Ito, Tetsuro Hirono, Wonn Soh, Chien-Ying Wang, Kuo-Fong Ma, Jih-Hao Hung, Sheng-Rong Song

    TERRESTRIAL ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCES   18 ( 2 )   379 - 393   2007年06月( ISSN:1017-0839

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    In order to understand the feature of rock stress change at different depths above, within, and beneath the Chelungpu fault after the Chi-Chi earthquake, we employed a core-based stress measurement method, anelastic strain recovery (ASR) technique to determine both the orientations and magnitudes of present three-dimensional principal rock stresses using drill core samples retrieved from Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) main Hole-A. The core samples used were taken from three depths; and their lithology were sandstone at depths of 592 and 1755 in and silt-stone at 1112 in. The anelastic strains of the specimens in nine directions, including six independent directions, were measured after its in-situ stress was released. Acquired anelastic strains were of high quality and reached several hundred microstrains, which is sufficiently high for the accuracy of the measurement system used. Thus, the strain data could be used for three-dimensional analysis resulting in the determination of orientations and the estimation of magnitudes of the principal in-situ stresses. Preliminary stress measurement results showed that the orientations of principal stresses changed between the shallower depth above the fault and the deeper depth beneath it, that is, the present stress distribution in the TCDP hole might be influenced by the Chelungpu fault rupture. At the same time, anelastic strain recovery measurement is well suited for the task of directly determining the orientations of principal in-situ stresses and to estimate the magnitude of stresses at large/great depth.

    DOI: 10.3319/TAO.2007.18.2.379

  • Cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion analyses of mineral veins within major thrusts in the Shimanto accretionary complex: evidence of hydraulic fracturing during thrusting 査読

    Hideki Mukoyoshi, Tetsuro Hirono, Kotaro Sekine, Noriyoshi Tsuchiya, Wonn Soh

    EARTH PLANETS AND SPACE   59 ( 8 )   937 - 942   2007年( ISSN:1343-8832

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    To elucidate fluid-rock interaction in a seismogenic zone along a plate-subduction boundary, we investigated the occurrence of mineral veins within the major thrusts in the Shimanto accretionary complex and examined their microstructures using a cathodoluminescence technique. We found discriminative structures, for example, a jigsaw-puzzle structure, within the quartz veins in the thrusts, which could indicate that hydraulic fracturing occurred by abnormal pore-fluid pressure during thrusting. Pore pressure values, estimated quantitatively by fluid inclusion analyses, were 3-27 MPa higher than the surrounding parts, which may be direct evidence of abnormal pore-fluid pressure. High pore-fluid pressures and subsequent hydraulic fracturing may play an important role within major thrusts along a plate-subduction boundary.

    DOI: 10.1186/BF03352032

  • Low total and inorganic carbon contents within the Taiwan Chelungpu fault system 査読

    Minoru Ikehara, Tetsuro Hirono, Osamu Tadai, Masumi Sakaguchi, Hiroyuki Kikuta, Tatsuro Fukuchi, Toshiaki Mishima, Norihiro Nakamura, Kan Aoike, Koichiro Fujimoto, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa, Hisao Ito, Masataka Kinoshita, Weiren Lin, Koji Masuda, Takuo Matsubara, Osamu Matsubayashi, Kazuo Mizoguchi, Masafumi Murayama, Kenshiro Otsuki, Hiroki Sone, Miki Takahashi, Wataru Tanikawa, Masaharu Tanimizu, Wonn Soh, Sheng-Rong Song

    GEOCHEMICAL JOURNAL   41 ( 5 )   391 - 396   2007年( ISSN:0016-7002

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    We presented the total and inorganic carbon contents of core samples recovered from the Taiwan Chelungpu fault system, which slipped at the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, and reported lower contents of inorganic carbon within the black gouge zone in FZB1136 (fault zone at depth 1136 m in Hole B) and in the black-material disks in FZB1194 and FZB1243.

    DOI: 10.2343/geochemj.41.391

  • Chemical and isotopic characteristics of interstitial fluids within the Taiwan Chelungpu fault 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Urumu Tsunogai, Kenji Maegawa, Tomohiro Toki, Masaharu Tanimizu, Wonn Soh, Weiren Lin, En-Chao Yeh, Sheng-Rong Song, Chien-Ying Wang

    GEOCHEMICAL JOURNAL   41 ( 2 )   97 - 102   2007年( ISSN:0016-7002

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    We determined chloride and sulfate concentrations and (delta D-H2O and delta O-18(H2O) isotope ratios of interstitial fluids extracted from cores from two fault zones within the Taiwan Chelungpu fault. The fluids had higher concentrations of chloride and sulfate and higher delta D-H2O and delta O-18(H2O) values than the local meteoric water. We concluded that the higher (delta D-H2O) and delta O-18(H2O) values were the result of either entry of surface meteoric water at low altitude via fault zones, or isotopic fractionation by depletion at 50 degrees C in a shallower fault zone, and at 125 degrees C in the deeper fault zone. The high temperature in the deeper fault zone might have been earthquake-related frictional heating, which led to isotopic fractionation. However, neither of the above hypotheses explains the high concentrations of Cl- and SO42-. We concluded that the high concentrations of Cl- and SO42- might have resulted from mixing with seawater and dissolution of pyrite, respectively.

    DOI: 10.2343/geochemj.41.97

  • Core handling and real-time non-destructive characterization at the kochi core center: An example of core analysis from the chelungpu fault

    Lin, W., Hirono, T., Yeh, E.-C., Tanikawa, W., Soh, W.

    Scientific Drilling   ( 1 SUPPL. 1 )   103 - 106   2007年( ISSN:1816-8957

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    As an example of core analysis carried out in active fault drilling programs, we report the procedures of core handlings, on the drilling site and non-destructive characterization in the laboratory. This analysis was employed on the core samples taken from Hole B of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP), which penetrated through the active fault that slipped during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake. We show results of the non-destructive physicale property measurements carried out at the Kochi Core Center (KCC), Japan. Distinct anomalies of lower bulk density andistinct higher magnetic susceptibility were recognized in all threey fault zones encountered in Hole B. To keep the core samples in good condition before they are used for various analyses is crucial. In addition, careful planning for core handling and core analyses is necessary for successful investigations.

    DOI: 10.2204/iodp.sd.s01.35.2007

  • Thermal history estimation of the Taiwan Chelungpu fault using rock-magnetic methods 査読

    Toshiaki Mishima, Tetsuro Hirono, Wonn Soh, Sheng-Rong Song

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   33 ( 23 )   2006年12月( ISSN:0094-8276

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    To investigate the cause of high magnetic susceptibility in disk-shaped black materials (BM disks) within core samples of Hole B, the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project, we carried out magnetic analyses of samples from the BM disks and surrounding gouge zones. Frequency dependence of low-temperature magnetic susceptibility and thermal demagnetization of low-temperature remanent magnetization revealed lower amounts of superparamagnetic grains in the BM disks than in the surrounding gouges. Magnetic grain-size reduction by shearing is therefore not a plausible explanation for the high magnetic susceptibility of the BM disks. Thermomagnetic analyses of the gouge samples showed that above 400 degrees C magnetization could be increased by thermal decomposition of paramagnetic minerals, whereas analyses of the BM disks showed a much smaller increase in magnetization. Thus, formation of ferrimagnetic magnetite or maghemite by thermal decomposition of paramagnetic minerals was inferred to be the cause of the high magnetic susceptibility of the BM disks, indicating that the BM disks, but not the gouges, have experienced temperatures of at least 400 degrees C.

    DOI: 10.1029/2006GL028088

  • Evidence of frictional melting from disk-shaped black material, discovered within the Taiwan Chelungpu fault system 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Minoru Ikehara, Kenshiro Otsuki, Toshiaki Mishima, Masumi Sakaguchi, Wonn Soh, Masahiro Omori, Weiren Lin, En-Chao Yeh, Wataru Tanikawa, Chien-Ying Wang

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   33 ( 19 )   2006年10月( ISSN:0094-8276

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project penetrated three fault zones as the Chelungpu fault system, which slipped during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, discovering disk-shaped black material ( BM disk) within the middle and lower fault zones in Hole B. The microscopic features of the BM disks indicated that they were pseudotachylytes, and they showed high magnetic susceptibility, possibly the result of intense shearing or high temperature conditions. Inorganic carbon content of the BM disks was low, possibly because of thermal decomposition of carbonate minerals. The high temperatures might be related to frictional heating during the earthquake, implying that the BM disks were produced under intense shearing with frictional heating that reached melting temperature. Because the disks, which provide the only evidence of melting, pre-date the 1999 earthquake, we concluded that frictional melting did not occur during the earthquake.

    DOI: 10.1029/2006GL027329

  • High magnetic susceptibility of fault gouge within Taiwan Chelungpu fault: Nondestructive continuous measurements of physical and chemical properties in fault rocks recovered from Hole B, TCDP 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Weiren Lin, En-Chao Yeh, Wonn Soh, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Hiroki Sone, Osamu Matsubayashi, Kan Aoike, Hisao Ito, Masataka Kinoshita, Masafumi Murayama, Sheng-Rong Song, Kuo-Fong Ma, Jih-Hao Hung, Chien-Ying Wang, Yi-Ben Tsai

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   33 ( 15 )   2006年08月( ISSN:0094-8276

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) was undertaken in 2002 to investigate the faulting mechanism of the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake. Hole B penetrated the Chelungpu fault, and recovered core samples from between 948.42 m and 1352.60 m depth. Three zones, marked 1136mFZ, 1194mFZ and 1243mFZ, were recognized in the core samples as active fault-zones within the Chelungpu fault. Multi-Sensor Core Logger measurements revealed lower densities and higher magnetic susceptibilities within the black gouge zones in all three fault zones. Even though the fault zone that slipped during the 1999 earthquake has not been identified, higher magnetic susceptibilities indicate that frictional heating has taken place in the Chelungpu fault.

    DOI: 10.1029/2006GL026133

  • Co-seismic frictional melting along an out-of-sequence thrust in the Shimanto accretionary complex. Implications on the tsunamigenic potential of splay faults in modem subduction zones 査読

    Hideki Mukoyoshi, Arito Sakaguchi, Kenshiro Otsuki, Tetsuro Hirono, Wonn Soh

    EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS   245 ( 1-2 )   330 - 343   2006年05月( ISSN:0012-821X

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Out-of-sequence thrusts (OST) play an important role in the thickening of accretionary prisms, formation of forearc basins, and tsunami generation in subduction zones. By detailed investigations of geological and paleogeothermal structures, an ancient seismogenic OST is identified in the Shimanto accretionary complex, southwest Japan. This OST consists of a mappable en echelon fault system developed at a late stage of the accretionary process. The estimated accumulated displacement of 2.5-8.5 km and formation depth of 2.5-5.5 km, based on a thermal analysis, indicates much higher fault activities sense of slip with a sinistral slip, and the large displacement was distributed among multiple small faults each with a small offset. Most of the faults in the en echelon fault system recorded repeated brittle failure, and one fault preserves pseudotachylyte, a fault rock indicative of seismic faulting. This is the first report of pseudotachylyte along an OST in an accretionary prism. Repeated fracturing in the same narrow shear zones (each only a few millimeters thick) suggests the OSTs perform as major shear localized zone in the accretionary prism. Shallow estimated formation depth and consequent low normal stress also support the hypothesis by a weak coupling along this fault zone. These findings are in accord with a thrust activity in the shallow portion of the accretionary prism being associated with rupture propagation from the deep seismogenic region. This OST showed high activity and repeated faulting in the shallow portion of the accretionary prism, comparable to that of the submarine tsunamigenic OST in the present Nankai trough. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2006.02.039

  • Pore space visualization of rocks using an atomic force microscope 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Weiren Lin, Satoru Nakashima

    43 ( 2 )   317 - 320   2006年02月( ISSN:1365-1609

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2005.06.006

  • The role of dewatering in the progressive deformation of a sandy accretionary wedge: constraints from direct imagings of fluid flow and void structure 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono

    397 ( 3-4 )   261 - 280   2005年03月( ISSN:0040-1951

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2004.12.006

  • In situ visualization of fluid flow image within deformed rock by X-ray CT 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Manabu Takahashi, Satoru Nakashima

    70 ( 1-2 )   37 - 46   2003年10月( ISSN:0013-7952

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1016/S0013-7952(03)00074-7

  • Physical properties of upper oceanic crust: Ocean Drilling Program Hole 801C and the waning of hydrothermal circulation 査読

    Richard D. Jarrard, Lewis J. Abrams, Robert Pockalny, Roger L. Larson, Tetsuro Hirono

    108 ( B4 )   2003年04月( ISSN:2169-9313

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1029/2001JB001727

  • Strain partitioning between the Suruga Trough and the Zenisu Thrust: Neogene to present tectonic evolution in the onland offshore Tokai district, Japan 査読

    Tetsurot Hirono

    Tectonophysics   361 ( 3-4 )   205 - 214   2003年01月( ISSN:0040-1951

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    The Tokai district in central Japan is located close to the convergent boundary between the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates, and has experienced not only repeated large interplate earthquakes but also intense aseismic movement. In this paper, the spatial and temporal tectonic evolution of the Tokai district, particularly around the Omaezaki area, is discussed to assess whether the district has been and will be active or inactive. According to a geological survey, the horizontal crustal shortening strain can imply the hypothetical tectonic model that the area has been getting less active and the strain rate since the Neogene can be calculated as 12% and 2 × 10 - 6%/year, respectively. The present interseismic horizontal crustal strain and strain rate around the Omaezaki area are approximately 4 × 10- 7% and 4 × 10- 9%/year. By comparing these rates, the decrease since Neogene can imply the hypothetical tectonic model that the area has been getting less active influenced by the strain partitioning between the Suruga Trough and the Zenisu Thrust. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0040-1951(02)00590-5

  • Direct imaging of fluid flow in fault-related rocks by X-ray CT 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Manabu Takahashi, Satoru Nakashima

    215   107 - 115   2003年( ISSN:0305-8719

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2003.215.01.10

  • Determination of a slip direction of a healed fault 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono

    Journal of Structural Geology   2000年

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8141(99)00173-X

  • Duplex arrays and thickening of accretionary prisms: An example from Bose Peninsula, Japan 査読

    Tetsuro Hirono, Yujiro Ogawa

    26 ( 9 )   779 - 782   1998年09月( ISSN:0091-7613

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(1998)026<0779:DAATOA>2.3.CO;2

▼全件表示

書籍等出版物

  • 基礎地学実験:新装版

    廣野哲朗, 佐伯和人, 寺崎栄紀, 境家達弘, 横田勝一郎, 松尾太郎, 芝井広( 担当: 共著)

    学術図書出版社  2020年10月 

  • 基礎地学実験

    廣野 哲朗

    学術図書出版社  2020年  ( ISBN:9784780608779

     詳細を見る

講演・口頭発表等

  • 四万十帯メランジュにおける 構造地質学的・地球化学的特徴 :海溝型地震における断層での 岩石-水相互作用

    廣野哲朗・石川剛志・嶋本朱那

    日本地球惑星科学連合2023年大会   2023年05月 

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    会議種別:口頭発表(一般)  

  • ICDP DSeis: M5.5オークニー地震余震域から採取した断層試料の物質科学的特徴 国際共著 国内会議

    宮本英・廣野哲朗・横山友暉・金木俊也・山本裕二・石川剛志・土山明・片山郁夫・矢部康男・ZIEGLER Martin・DURRHEIM Raymond・小笠原宏

    日本地震学会2022年度秋季大会  2022年10月 

     詳細を見る

    会議種別:口頭発表(一般)  

  • 数値的および実験的手法による断層内における変形構造発達過程の物理的描像の解明 国内会議

    宮本英・廣野哲朗・湯川諭・大橋聖和

    日本地球惑星科学連合2022年大会  2022年05月 

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    会議種別:口頭発表(一般)  

  • 四万十帯日高川層群における太古のプレート境界断層の地球化学的特徴と滑り挙動評価 国内会議

    嶋本朱那・廣野哲朗・石川剛志

    日本地球惑星科学連合2022年大会  2022年05月 

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    会議種別:口頭発表(一般)  

  • 砂岩を用いた摩擦実験による摩擦挙動と表面構造の関係性の評価 国内会議

    矢野弘道・宮本英・廣野哲朗・大橋聖和

    日本地球惑星科学連合2022年大会  2022年05月 

     詳細を見る

    会議種別:口頭発表(一般)  

科研費

  • プレート境界断層の鉱物組成不均一性が地震時の破壊伝播過程に与える影響の解明

    基盤研究(C)  2022年

担当授業科目

  • 海外特別研究1

    2023年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 海外特別研究2

    2023年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球物理学特論A

    2023年度   週間授業   大学院

  • 地球環境学特別演習2A

    2023年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球環境学特別演習1A

    2023年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球学特別研究2A

    2023年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球学特別研究1A

    2023年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 測量及び地質調査法1実習

    2023年度   集中講義   大学

  • 地質調査法1

    2023年度   集中講義   大学

  • 地球学概論A

    2023年度   週間授業   大学

  • 海外特別研究4

    2023年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球環境学ゼミナールA

    2023年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球学特別研究4A

    2023年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球学特別研究3A

    2023年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 海外特別研究

    2023年度   集中講義   大学

  • 地球学演習Ⅳ

    2023年度   集中講義   大学

  • 特別研究

    2023年度   集中講義   大学

  • 前期海外特別研究1

    2023年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 後期海外特別研究2

    2023年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 後期特別研究

    2023年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 環境地球学ゼミナール

    2023年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球環境学ゼミナールA

    2022年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球学特別研究3A

    2022年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球物理学特論A

    2022年度   週間授業   大学院

  • 地球環境学特別演習1A

    2022年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球学特別研究1A

    2022年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 海外特別研究1 (杉本)

    2022年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球環境学特別演習1B (杉本)

    2022年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球学特別研究1B (杉本)

    2022年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球学概論A

    2022年度   週間授業   大学

  • 地球学演習Ⅳ

    2022年度   集中講義   大学

  • 海外特別研究1 (杉本・秋入学)

    2022年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 海外特別研究5 (杉本)

    2022年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 海外特別研究4 (杉本)

    2022年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 海外特別研究3 (杉本)

    2022年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球環境学ゼミナールB (杉本)

    2022年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 地球学特別研究3B (杉本)

    2022年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 海外特別研究2 (杉本)

    2022年度   集中講義   大学院

  • 海外特別研究(地球)

    2022年度   集中講義   大学

  • 特別研究(地球)

    2022年度   集中講義   大学

  • 地球学演習

    2022年度   集中講義   大学

  • 地球学演習

    2022年度   週間授業   大学

  • 測量及び地質調査法1実習

    2022年度   集中講義   大学

  • 地質調査法1

    2022年度   集中講義   大学

  • 地球学実験B/必:理<地>選:<地以外>(市:時間割表参照)S

    2022年度   週間授業   大学院

▼全件表示

論文・研究指導集計

  • 2023年度

    卒業論文指導数:2名  卒業論文審査数:2件

    博士前期課程学生指導数:0名 

    修士論文審査数(主査):0件  修士論文審査数(副査):0件

    博士論文審査数(主査):0件  博士論文審査数(副査):0件

独自項目・特記事項(教育活動)

  • 2022年度

      詳細を見る

    独自項目:大阪大学からの修士課程2年次学生の2名を委託指導

社会貢献活動

  • 環境破壊・南海トラフ巨大地震 地球環境セミナー

    役割:講師

    公益財団法人 平野区画整理記念会館  2022年08月

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    種別:講演会

  • MEGAQUAKE 巨大地震 2021 〜震災10年 科学はどこまで迫れたか〜

    役割:出演, 助言・指導, 情報提供

    NHK  NHKスペシャル  2021年09月

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    種別:テレビ・ラジオ番組

  • 3.11から10年 「地震学者たちが挑んだ“超巨大地震”」

    役割:出演, 助言・指導, 情報提供, 実演

    NHK  サイエンスZERO  2021年03月

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    種別:テレビ・ラジオ番組

  • 都市直下地震・露わになったリスク~大阪震度6弱で何が

    役割:出演, 助言・指導, 情報提供

    NHK  クローズアップ現代+  2018年06月

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    種別:テレビ・ラジオ番組

  • 海底下1000m!巨大地震の謎を探る

    役割:出演, 助言・指導, 情報提供

    NHK  サイエンスZERO  2012年06月

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    種別:テレビ・ラジオ番組

メディア報道

  • 地震の謎に震源の物質から迫る 新聞・雑誌

    株式会社マッグガーデン  関西発!シュッとした缶詰「MAGKAN」  2023年01月

      詳細を見る

    SDGs:

  • MEGAQUAKE 巨大地震 2021 〜震災10年 科学はどこまで迫れたか〜 テレビ・ラジオ番組

    NHK  NHKスペシャル  2021年09月

  • 3.11から10年 「地震学者たちが挑んだ“超巨大地震”」 テレビ・ラジオ番組

    NHK  サイエンスZERO  2021年03月

  • 都市直下地震・露わになったリスク~大阪震度6弱で何が テレビ・ラジオ番組

    NHK  クローズアップ現代+  2018年06月

  • 海底下1000m!巨大地震の謎を探る テレビ・ラジオ番組

    NHK  サイエンスZERO  2012年06月

出張講義テーマ ⇒ 出張講義一覧へ

  • 西宮市 令和5年度「宮水学園」サイエンス講座

    分野:理学(数学,物理学,化学,生物学,地球学,生物化学)

     詳細を見る

    SDGs:

    対象:社会人・一般

    キーワード:地震 

    地球46億年の歴史と環境変化

  • 公益財団法人平野区画整理記念会館 環境破壊・南海トラフ巨大地震 地球環境セミナー

    分野:理学(数学,物理学,化学,生物学,地球学,生物化学)

     詳細を見る

    SDGs:

    対象:市民団体

    キーワード:地震 防災